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Flashcards in Med Term 7 Deck (190):
1

brings oxygen into the body for transportation to the cells

respiratory system

2

consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea

upper respiratory tract

3

consists of the bronchial tree and lungs

lower respiratory tract

4

cavity in which the structures of the lower respiratory tract are located

thoracic cavity

5

where air enters in through

the nose

6

a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections

nasal septum

7

the thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris

cilia

8

specialized tissues that line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems

mucous membranes

9

secreted by the mucous membranes and protects and lubricates tissues

mucus

10

nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell, also help with taste, located in mucous membrane in the upper nasal cavity

olfactory receptors

11

form a protective circle of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the respiratory system

tonsils

12

air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, and are located in the bones of the skull

paranasal sinuses

13

prefix meaning near

para-

14

means nose

nas/o

15

sinuses located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows. infections cause pain

frontal sinuses

16

sinuses located in the sphenoid bone, and are close to the optic nerves and an infection can cause damage to vision

sphenoid sinuses

17

the largest of the paranasal sinuses and are located in the maxillary bones. can cause pain in posterior maxillary teeth

maxillary sinuses

18

sinuses located in the ethmoid bones, and are irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone

ethmoid sinuses

19

receives the air after it passes through the nose

pharynx, aka throat

20

first division of the pharynx, and is posterior to the nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth

nasopharynx

21

suffix meaning throat

-pharynx

22

the second division of the pharynx, and is the portion that is visible when looking into the mouth, shared respiratory and digestive

oropharynx

23

means mouth

or/o

24

third division of the pharynx, and is also shared by resp/digest, opens to trachea and esophagus

laryngopharynx

25

means larynx

laryng/o

26

a triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea

larynx, aka voice box

27

a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue, swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so food doesn't enter

epiglottis

28

the tube located directly in front of the esophagus that extends from the neck to the chest

trachea, aka windpipe

29

formed where the trachea divides into two branches

bronchi

30

the smallest branches of the bronchi

bronchioles

31

the very small grap-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole

alveoli

32

the organs of respiration, divided into lobes

lungs

33

has three lobes

right lung

34

has two lobes

left lung

35

the cavity located between the lungs, contains heart, connective tissue, veins, trachea...

mediastinum

36

a thin, moist and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage

pleura

37

the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung

parietal pleura

38

the inner layer of the pleura that surrounds each lung

visceral pleura

39

the airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes

pleural cavity

40

the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen. makes breathing possible

diaphragm

41

stimulate the diaphragm and cause it to contract

phrenic nerves

42

the exchange of oxygen and CO2 that is essential to life

respiration

43

the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward

inhalation

44

the act of breathing out

exhalation

45

the act of bringing air into and out of the lungs and exchanging gases from this air

external respiration

46

the exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells, and tissues

internal respiration

47

a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck

otolaryngologist

48

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues

pulmonologist

49

form meaning lung

pulmon/o

50

a lung disease in which it is hard to breathe. damage to the bronchi partially obstructs them.

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

51

when the airways have become inflamed and thickened and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells

chronic bronchitis

52

form meaning bronchus, or bronchi

bronch/o

53

the progressive loss of lung function that is characterized by decrease in alveoli, enlargement in remaining alveoli, and wall destruction of remaining alveoli. barrel shaped

emphysema

54

a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing

asthma

55

the swelling and clogging of the airways with mucus. usually after exposure to inhaled allergens

airway inflammation

56

a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut

bronchospasm

57

suffix meaning involuntary contraction

-spasm

58

common cold, can be caused by over 200 viruses

upper respiratory infections

59

an allergic reaction to airborne allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus

allergic rhinitis, aka allergy

60

an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and barking cough

croup

61

an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract, nor largely prevented through immunization. can damage heart muscle and peripheral nerves

diphtheria

62

bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders

epistaxis

63

an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection that is spread by respiratory droplets and occurs most commonly in epidemics during the colder months

influenza

64

a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness, then noisy inspiration

pertussis, aka whooping cough

65

the watery flow of mucus from the nose

rhinorrhea

66

an inflammation of the sinuses

sinusitis

67

an inflammation of the pharynx

pharyngitis

68

paralysis of the larynx

laryngoplegia

69

suffix meaning paralysis

-plegia

70

the sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx

laryngospasm

71

the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds

aphonia

72

means voice or sound

phon/o

73

any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty

dysphonia

74

an inflammation of the larynx

laryngitis

75

bleeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea

tracheorrhagia

76

means trachea

trache/o

77

an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi

bronchorrhea

78

an inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath. by the flu or lung damage

pleurisy, or pleuritis

79

pain in the pleura that occurs in relation to breathing movements

pleurodynia

80

mean pleura

pleur/o

81

a noun ending

-isy

82

the accumulation of air in the pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that prevents the lung from fully expanding or causing collapse

pneumothorax

83

means lung or air

pneum/o

84

means chest

-thorax

85

the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. prevents full lung expansion, feeling of breathlessness

pleural effusion

86

a collection of blood in the pleural cavity by trauma, disease, or surgery

hemothorax

87

coughing up of blood or bloodstained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage

hemoptysis

88

suffix that means spitting

-ptysis

89

the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane

pyothorax

90

a non-specific disease, form of the sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

91

the collapse of part or all of a lung by blockage of the air passages or by very shallow breathing

atelectasis

92

means incomplete

atel

93

means stretching or enlargement

-ectasis

94

state of being unable to expand to receive air due to a pneumothorax or atelectasis

collapsed lung

95

an accumulation of fluid in lung tissues

pulmonary edema

96

bleeding from the lungs

pneumorrhagia

97

an infectious disease that usually attacks the lungs, but can attack other parts of the body, usually in those with suppressed immune systems

tuberculosis

98

a serious infection or inflammation of the lungs in which the smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill with pus and other liquid

pneumonia

99

a localized form of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles and surrounding alveoli

bronchopneumonia

100

form of pneumonia that affects larger areas of the lungs, often including one or more sections, or lobes, of a lung

lobar pneumonia

101

type of pneumonia that can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs

aspiration pneumonia

102

the only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination, caused by strep pneumoniae

bacterial pneumonia

103

a milder but longer lasting form of pneumonia

mycoplasmal pneumonia, aka walking pneumonia

104

pneumonia that is an opportunistic infection caused by the fungus pneumoncystis carinii

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

105

pneumonia caused by several different types of viruses, and accounts for half of all pneumonias

viral pneumonia

106

a group of almost 200 diseases that cause inflammation and scarring of the alveoli and their supporting structures

interstitial lung diseases

107

another name for the inflammation and thickening of the walls of the alveoli

interstitial fibrosis

108

figrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after prolonged environmental or occupational contact

pneumoconiosis

109

caused by coal dust in the lungs

anthracosis, aka black lung disease

110

caused by asbestos particles in the lungs and usually occurs after working with asbestos

asbestosis

111

caused by inhaling silica dust in the lungs and usually occurs after working in occupation including foundry work, quarrying, ceramics, glass work, and sandblasting

silicosis

112

means glass

silic/o

113

means cotton dust

byssin/o

114

caused by inhaling cotton dust into the lungs and usually occurs after working in a textile factory

byssinosis

115

means asbestos

asbest/o

116

means coal dust

anthrac/o

117

means dust

coni

118

the formation of scar tissue in the lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty breathing

pulmonary fibrosis

119

a generic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus

cystic fibrosis

120

the leading cause of cancer death in the US, in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the lung

lung cancer

121

easy or normal breathing

eupnea

122

means good

eu-

123

means breathing

-pnea

124

the absence of spontaneous respiration

apnea

125

a group of potentially fatal disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long enough periods to cause low O2 levels

sleep apnea syndromes

126

an abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less that 10 breaths per minute

bradypnea

127

abnormally fast rate of respiration usually more than 20 breaths per min

tachypnea

128

a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

129

difficult or labored breathing

dyspnea, aka shortness of breath

130

breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest, associated with exertion

hyperpnea

131

shallow or slow respiration

hypopnea

132

an abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety

hyperventilation

133

means breathing

-ventilation

134

occurs when food or a foreign object blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs

airway obstruction

135

the absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissue

anoxia

136

means oxygen

ox

137

the condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it need to function

asphyxia

138

any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia

asphyxiation

139

a bluish discoloration of the skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen

cyanosis

140

the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

hypercapnia

141

means carbon dioxide

capn/o

142

a condition of having below-normal oxygen level in the blood

hypoxemia

143

the condition of having below-normal oxygen levels in the body tissues and cells, less severe than anoxia

hypoxia

144

a condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low or the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high

respiratory failure

145

damage to the lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli and prevent the normal exchange of gases

smoke inhalation

146

the sudden and unexplainable eath of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between the ages of 2 week and 1 year

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

147

the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope

bronchoscopy

148

a valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, TB, and emphysema

chest imaging

149

the visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope inserted through the mouth and placed into the pharynx to examine the larynx

laryngoscopy

150

a handheld device often used to test those with asthma to measure how quickly the patient can expel air

peak flow meter

151

measures physiological activity during sleep and is most often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea

polysomnography

152

means many

poly-

153

means sleep

somn/o

154

a group of tests that measure volume and flow of air by utilizing a spirometer

pulmonary function tests

155

a recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of time required for each breath

spirometer

156

an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen sat level in the blood

pulse oximeter

157

the phlegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes

sputum

158

thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages

phlegm

159

a screening test for TB in which the skin of the arm in injected with a harmless antigen extracted from TB bacteria

tuberculin skin testing

160

considered a more accurate skin test for diagnosing tuberculosis

Mantoux PPD skin test

161

administered to prevent or relieve coughing

antitussive, aka cough medicine

162

means cough

tuss

163

means performs

-ive

164

a medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs

bronchodilator

165

mixes a single dose of the medication with a puff of air and pushes it into the mouth via a chemical propellant

metered-dose inhaler

166

pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouth piece

nebulizer, aka atomizer

167

the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway

endotracheal intubation

168

a procedure performed using and endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose and sinus

functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)

169

the surgical removal of the larynx

laryngectomy

170

the surgical repair of the larynx

laryngoplasty

171

the surgical repair of the pharynx

pharyngoplasty

172

a surgical incision of the pharynx

pharyngotomy

173

the surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum

septoplasty

174

means septum

sept/o

175

the surgical repair of the trachea

tracheoplasty

176

the creation of a stoma into the trachea and inserting a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions

tracheostomy

177

usually an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage

tracheotomy

178

the surgical removal of a lobe of the lung

lobectomy

179

the surgical removal of part of the pleura

pleurectomy

180

means pleura

pleur/o

181

the surgical removal of all or part of a lung

pneumonectomy

182

the surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity

thoracentesis

183

the surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity

thoracostomy

184

a surgical treatment of lung cancer by removing all or part of a lung

thoracotomy

185

the use of a video-assisted thracoscope to view the inside of the chest cavity through very small incisions

video-assisted thoracic surgery

186

a relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety

diaphragmatic breathing, aka abdominal breathing

187

treatment for sleep apnea that includes a mask, tubes, and a fan to create air pressure that pushes the tongue forward to maintain an open airway

CPAP device, aka positive pressure ventilation device

188

an apparatus for administering artificial respiration in cases of respiratory failure

respirator

189

a mechanical device for artificial ventilation of the lungs that is used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function

ventilator

190

administered when the patient is unable to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in the blood

supplemental oxygen