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Flashcards in Med Term 8 Deck (251):
1

referes to the structures of the digestive system

gastrointestinal tract

2

means stomach

gastr/o

3

means intestine

intestin

4

includes the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium

oral cavity, aka mouth

5

form the opening to the oral cavity

lips, aka labia

6

forms the roof of the mouth

palate

7

the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane

hard palate

8

the flexible posterior portion of the palate, closes off the nasal passage during swallowing to prevent food and liquid from moving upward into the nasal cavity

soft palate

9

hangs from the free edge of the soft palate, plays an important role in snoring and some speech

uvula

10

a very strong, flexible muscle. aides in speech and moves food during chewing and swallowing

tongue

11

small bumps that cover the tough upper surface of the tongue (dorsum), they contain taste buds

papillae

12

consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth

periodontium

13

means surrounding

peri-

14

means teeth

odonti/o

15

the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches, and lines the cheeks

gingiva

16

this joint is formed at the back of the mouth where the maxillary and the mandibular arches come together

temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

17

referes to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws

dentition

18

consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime. include 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars, and 12 molars

permanent dentition

19

means without teeth

edentulous

20

describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth

occlusion

21

any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth

malocclusion

22

a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing

saliva

23

secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth. 3 pair

salivary glands

24

the common passageway for both respiration and digestion

pharynx

25

a lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea (windpipe) to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing

epiglottis

26

the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach

esophagus

27

a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach. normally allows the flow of food into the stomach and closes to prevent the stomach contents from regurgitating

lower esophageal sphincter

28

a sac-like organ composed of the fundus (upper rounded part), body (main portion), and antrum (lower part)

stomach

29

the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach containing glands that produce gastric juices that aid in digestion and mucus as a protective lining

rugae

30

the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine

pylorus

31

the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine

pyloric sphincter

32

extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. A coiled organ 20 feet long, consisting of 3 sections where food is digested and the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream

small intestine

33

the first portion of the small intestine. extends from the pylorus to the jejunum

duodenum

34

the middle portion of the small intestine. extends from the duodenum to the ileum

jejunum

35

the last and longest portion of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine

ileum

36

extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus. twice as wide as the small intestine, 1/4 as long, where waste products of digestion are processed in preparation for excretion through the anus

large intestine

37

a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen. extends from the end of the ileum to the beginning of the colon.

cecum

38

the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine

ileocecal sphincter

39

hangs from the lower portion of the cecum, composed of lymphoid tissue

vermiform appendix, aka appendix

40

the longest portion of the large intestine, and is subdivided into four parts

colon

41

travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver

ascending colon

42

passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen

transverse colon

43

travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon

descending colon

44

an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below

sigmoid colon

45

the widest division of the large intestine, and makes up the last 4 inches of the large intestine and ends at the anus

rectum

46

the lower opening of the digestive tract, in which waste flows through

anus

47

refers to the anus and rectum as a single unit

anorectal

48

means anus

an/o

49

means rectum

rect/o

50

a large organ located in the right upper quad of the abdomen, removes toxins from the blood and turns food into fuel

liver

51

means liver

hepat/o

52

the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin and is released by the liver in bile

bilirubin

53

a digestive juice secreted by the liver which aids in the digestion of fats

bile

54

provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine

biliary tree

55

a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver, stores and concentrates the bile for later use

gallbladder

56

means pertaining to the gallbladder

cholecystic

57

means gallbladder

cholecyst/o

58

a soft, 6 inch long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach, has roles in digestion and endocrine systems

pancreas

59

means pancreas

pancreat/o

60

the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use

digestion

61

term that includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients

metabolism

62

means change

metabol/o

63

the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients

anabolism

64

the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide

catabolism

65

the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body

absorption

66

finger-like projections that covers the mucosa that lines the small intestine, each contains blood vessels and lacteals

villi

67

breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva, and prepares it to be swallowed

mastication, aka chewing

68

a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed

bolus

69

a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a sigle direction. happens in esophagus when food moves downward

peristalsis

70

the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into the small intestine

chyme

71

solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus

feces, aka stools

72

the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine

defecation, aka bowel movement

73

the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine

borborygmus

74

the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum

flatulence, aka flatus

75

the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases

bariatrics

76

specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity. DDS or DMD

dentist

77

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines

gastroenterologist

78

means stomach

gastr/o

79

means small intestine

enter/o

80

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems

internist

81

a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures

orthodontist

82

means straight or normal

orth/o

83

means teeth

odont/o

84

a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth

periodontist

85

a physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus

proctologist

86

means anus and rectum

proct/o

87

grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth. very common, associated with stress, foods, fever

aphthous ulcers, aka canker sores or mouth ulcers

88

a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth

cheilosis

89

means lips

cheil/o

90

blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral HSV-1

herpes labialis, aka cold sores or fever blisters

91

develops when the fungus candida albicans grows out of control, creamy white lesions on the tongue or inner cheeks, most common in infants or older adults or with antibiotics

oral thrush

92

any disease of the mouth due to a fungus

stomatomycosis

93

means mouth or oral cavity

stomat/o

94

means fungus

myc/o

95

describes bleeding from any part of the mouth

stomatorrhagia

96

describes any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer, causes difficulty in speaking and affects nutrition due to impaired chewing and swallowing

trismus

97

the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretion by the salivary glands, due to medications, radiation...

xerostomia, aka dry mouth

98

means dry

xer/o

99

a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development

cleft lip, aka harelip

100

the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus, can make eating and speaking difficult

cleft palate

101

caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth, includes inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration, and death of gum tissues.

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), aka trench mouth

102

the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress. wears away tooth structure, damages periodontal tissues, and injures the TMJ

bruxism

103

dental plaque that has calcified

dental calculus, aka tartar

104

an infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth

dental caries, aka tooth decay or cavity

105

a major cause of dental caries and periodontal disease and forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth. consists of bacterial by-products

dental plaque

106

the earliest stage of periodontal disease, and the inflammation only affects the gums

gingivitis

107

an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders

halitosis, aka bad breath

108

an inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth

periodontal disease, aka periodontitis

109

part of the group of complex symtoms that include pain, headache, or difficulty in chewing that are related to the functioning of the TMJ

temporomandibular disorder

110

the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

111

the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus

pyrosis, aka heartburn

112

enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus, causing severe bleeding when one of the veins rupture

esophageal varices

113

a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm

hiatal hernia

114

means opening

hiat/o

115

a common inflammation of the stomach lining that is often caused by the bacterium H. pylori

gastritis

116

an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines

gastroenteritis

117

the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach

gastrorrhea

118

sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system

peptic ulcers

119

means digestion

pept/o

120

the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease

anorexia

121

an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance, leading to an intense fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a normal body weight. voluntary starvation and excessive exercising often cause emaciation

anorexia nervosa

122

an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other meds

bulimia nervosa

123

a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS. body is unable to absorb nutrients

cachexia

124

an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay that lasts for at least 1 month. not the same as pregnancy induced cravings

pica

125

a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance

dehydration

126

a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb, and distribute these nutrients

malnutrition

127

a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it

malabsorption

128

an excessive accumulation of fat in the body

obesity

129

the condition of weighing two to three times or more than the ideal weight or having a body mass index value greater than 39

morbid obesity

130

a number that shows body weight adjusted for height

body mass index

131

the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, a common cause of gas in the stomach

aerophagia

132

means air

aer/o

133

means swallowing

-phagia

134

pain or discomfort in digestion

dyspepsia, aka indigestion

135

means digestion

-pepsia

136

the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth

emesis, aka vomiting

137

the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach

eructation

138

the vomiting of blood

hematemesis

139

extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration, can be related to morning sickness

hyperemesis

140

the urge to vomit

nausea

141

the return of swallowed food into the mouth

regurgitation

142

often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon

colorectal carcinoma, aka colon cancer

143

the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon

diverticulosis

144

means diverticulum

diverticul/o

145

a small pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the colon

diverticulum

146

an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens

enteritis

147

the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine, including pain, cramping, abdominal distention, vomiting, constipation. caused by cessation of intestinal peristalsis

ileus

148

a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea. usually aggravated by stress and NOT by pathogens

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

149

the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines. most commonly ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

150

a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation

ulcerative colitis

151

a chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and the colon

Crohn's disease

152

the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine caused by a physical obstruction

intestinal obstruction

153

the twisting of the intestine on itself that cause and obstruction, usually occurring in infancy

volvulus

154

the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. rare, sometimes found in infants and young children

intussusception

155

the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin

inguinal hernia

156

occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off

strangulated hernia

157

a small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that can cause sever pain during a bowel movement

anal fissure

158

the inability to control the excretion of feces

bowel incontinence

159

defined as having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week, usually hard, dry, small in size and difficult to eliminate

constipation

160

transmitted by food or water that is contaminated due to poor sanitary conditions

amebic dysentery, aka amebiasis

161

rare, but serious condition transmitted through contaminated food or an infected wound

botulism, aka food poisoning

162

transmitted through contact with contaminated food or water

Cholera

163

transmitted through contaminated foods that have not been properly cooked

E. coli

164

transmitted by food that is contaminated by feces

salmonellosis, aka salmonella

165

caused by eating food that has been handled by a typhoid-carrier

typhoid fever

166

an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration

diarrhea

167

occur when a cluster or veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening

hemorrhoids

168

the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools

melena

169

means black or dark

melan/o

170

an inflammation of the liver

hepatitis

171

the abnormal enlargement of the liver

hepatomegaly

172

a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes. caused by greater than normal bilirubin in the blood

jaundice

173

a progressive degenerative disease of the liver that is often caused by excessive alcohol use or by viral hepatitis B or C

cirrhosis

174

means yellow or orange

cirrh/o

175

an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

ascites

176

describes a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol, most commonly in middle-aged people who are obese and may have diabetes and elevated cholesterol

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

177

mildest type of NAFLD, characterized by accumulations of fat within the liver that usually does not cause liver damage

steatosis

178

means fat

steat/o

179

a more serious form of NAFLD and consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation

nonalcoholic steatohepatits (NASH)

180

an acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quad of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice

cholangitis

181

means bile duct

choleang/o

182

pain in the gallbladder

cholecystalgia

183

inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile

cholecystitis

184

a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components

gallstone, aka biliary calculus or cholelith

185

the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

cholelithiasis

186

a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissues structure within the abdomen, showing, for example, the presence of a tumor or obstruction

abdominal computed tomography (CT)

187

a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves

abdominal ultrasound

188

the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum

anoscopy

189

a tiny video cavera in a capsule that the patient swallows, transmits images of the walls of the small intestine

capsule endoscopy

190

a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium

cholangiography

191

an endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

192

radiographic studies to examine the digestive system, using a contrast medium

upper GI series and lower GI series

193

a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools, can be done at home

hemoccult

194

means hidden

-occult

195

specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics

stool samples

196

an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures

endoscope

197

the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum

colonoscopy

198

the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon

sigmoidoscopy

199

the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity

enema

200

taken to relieve the discomfort of conditions such as pyrosis or to help peptic ulcers heal by neutralizing the acids in the stomach

antacids

201

used to treat the symptoms of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease by decreasing the amount of acid produced by the stomach

acid reducers

202

a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting

antiemetic

203

medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements

laxatives

204

a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea, especially in young children

oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

205

the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus

dental prophylaxis

206

the surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue

gingivectomy

207

means gingival tissue

gingiv/o

208

specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries

maxillofacial surgery

209

the surgical repair of a cleft lip and/or palate

palatoplasty

210

means palate

palat/o

211

the surgical repair of the mouth

stomatoplasty

212

the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach

gastrectomy

213

the placement of feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach

nasogastric intubation

214

a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach

gastrostomy tube

215

administered to patients who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition through eating. intravenously.

total parenteral nutrition

216

used to treat the symptoms of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease by decreasing the amount of acid produced by the stomach

acid reducers

217

a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting

antiemetic

218

medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements

laxatives

219

a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea, especially in young children

oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

220

the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus

dentalprophylaxis

221

the surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue

gingivectomy

222

means gingival tissue

gingiv/o

223

specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries

maxillofacial surgery

224

the surgical repair of a cleft lip and/or palate

palatoplasty

225

means palate

palat/o

226

the surgical repair of the mouth

stomatoplasty

227

the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach

gastrectomy

228

the placement of feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach

nasogastric intubation

229

a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach

gastrostomy tube

230

administered to patients who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition through eating. intravenously.

total parenteral nutrition

231

performed to treat morbid obesity by restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested. limit food intake

bariatric surgery

232

the surgical removal of all, or part of the colon

colectomy

233

the surgical removal of a diverticulum

diverticulectomy

234

the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach, and the duodenum, to treat stomach cancer or remove a malfunctioning pyloric valve

gastroduodenostomy

235

a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures

anastomosis

236

the surgical removal of the ileum

ileectomy

237

a surgical procedure to create an artificial opening between an organ and the body surface

ostomy

238

the opening of an ostomy

stoma

239

the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, and the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall

ileostomy

240

the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface

colostomy

241

the surgical removal of hemorrhoids

hemorrhoidectomy

242

means piles

hemorrhoid/o

243

the surgical removal of the rectum

proctectomy

244

means rectum

proct/o

245

the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ

proctopexy

246

the surgical repair of the rectum

proctoplasty

247

the surgical removal of all or part of the liver

hepatectomy

248

means surgical suturing of the liver

hepatorrhaphy

249

an option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer

liver transplant

250

an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones

choledocholithotomy

251

the surgical removal of the gallbladder

cholecystectomy