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Flashcards in Media and Politics Deck (27):

What is the role of the media in politics?

- Watchdog of elected politicians
- Informing citizens about politics and public affairs
- Forums for debate and public opinion


What is the free press?

Newspapers and broadcasting channels that are free from political interference


What are the key issues with the press?

- Over-reliance or bias in relation to political sources
- Unaccountable power and concentration of ownership
- Commercialisation, cynicism and ‘dumbing-down


What percentage of people trust BBC journalists?

(YouGov, 2012)


What percentage of people trust their local MP?

(YouGov, 2012)


What percentage of people trust red-top tabloid newpapers (e.g. Sun, Mirror)

(YouGov, 2012)


Who do people trust to tell the truth?

TV news readers- over 60% of people
Politicians- around 20% of people
(Ipsos Mori, 2015)


What is internal pluralism?

- Diversity of views expressed in one media organisation


What is external pluralism?

The number of media providers there are operating- public vs. private


Where did newspapers' legitimacy originally come from?

- The idea that they weren't biased- taking an editorial position
- But written by elites so a clear target for anti elites


How could social media change political campaigning? (x

- Platform for a dialogue- raise issues, debate and hold representatives accountable
- Engage young people- target campaigning at young people to make their votes feel valuable
- Not only used by politicians- milifandom/ corbyn mania- challenged the monopoly of the traditional media to create political identities
- Easy campaigning for small parties or independents- low barriers to entry (In reality actually use very expensive algorithms and techniques)


How do politicians use Twitter?

- to respond to tweets,
- retweet supporters’ comments and ideas
- reflect on policies, current affairs and media coverage


What are the ethical issues of politics on social media?

- Journalists were originally the gatekeepers of info- ensuring it was given ethically- now rely on social media companies?
- Facebook algorithm favoured left wing news and fake news
- False stories- social media has made it harder to find the source and promotes false stories


What is the americanisation of British/ European politics?

- 24 hour news
- politiicians always campaigning
- more floating voters
- professionalisation of party politics


What is issue agenda setting?

- Influencing what we think ABOUT rather than what we think


What is policy agenda setting?

- Influencing what we think
- Journalist increasingly playing campaigning or advocacy role
- Harder to do than issue agenda setting


Which 2 newspapers are always strongly conservative?

- Daily Mail / Daily Express


Which newspaper is always strongly Labour?

- The Mirror


What are anticipatory effects?

- Politicians believe in media power- whether or not it exists it will change how politicians act
- Politicians take media response into account when they're designing policy or campaigning


What did The Sun claim in 1992?

- "It's the sun wot won it"
- They had won the election for The Conservatives
- "If Kinnock wins today will the last person to leave Britain please turn out the lights"- election day headline
- Was predicted to be a hung parliament but Cons got 42% of the vote


What was Cleggmania and how does this show the limits of the media

- In April 2010 Nick Clegg had a 78% approval rating
- Lib Dems got 1% more vote share and five seats down on their 2005 result
- Viewers liked Clegg but did not consider him to be PM candidate
- Media can change opinions, sometimes attitude but rarely behaviour


Why was the Sun wrong in 1992?



What is an echo chamber?

- media reinforce one’s beliefs and not allow any different opinions to influence them
- People select media which have similar perspectives as they do


What is happening to newspaper circulation?

- It's decreasing
- The Sun 3,000,000 in 2011 to 1,750,000 in 2016


How are the powers of the media to scruitinise being limited?

- 2012 Leverson phone hacking inquiry -> introduction of new statutory body IPSO- journalists scared to scruitinise
- Increased number of superinjunctions
- 2003 Hutton Inquiry reduced BBCs investigative powers
- (good though because it makes journalists more accountable)


Example for the issue agenda setting?

- In the run up to the 2015 election the media increased the importance of immigration by covering it a lot
- Continued after the election- In May 2016, 28% of voters say immigration as a key issue, by June 33% of voters thought it was a key issue


What does Hoppman et al say?

It's actually parties and promintent individuals who influence media, through, for example, press releases