Flashcards in Media- Selection And Presentation Of The News Deck (43):
What does Cathcart say about the news?
"The news tells us what is new, important and interesting in public life; it promotes informed debate, entertains and enlightens"
What does McQuail argue about the news?
It isn't objective or impartial. News is absolutely manufactured product because it is the end result of a selective process.
Describe the first economic factor?
Cost- having media professionals around the globe is expensive; news outlets often gather stories from agencies who sell news items and press releases from governments and pressure groups.
Describe the 2nd economic factor?
Drive for profit; generated by selling advertising space. This has 2 effects;
1. Conservatism- Bagdikian argues stories the news present avoid offending advertisers
2. Dumbing Down- Davies says news is undergoing a process of tablodization, this has turned the news into a form of infotainment
How does Fenton describe the news?
The "life-blood" of society
Describe the first structural factor?
Owners can influence the content of news;
1. Directly; can instruct media professions to present/ not present an item (gatekeeping and agenda setting)
2. Allocation of resources; owners have final decision on physical space in papers, airtime and staffing level etc
Describe the second structural factor?
Bureaucratic Constraints; The process of selecting events for news is shaped by factors which may constrain MPs in selection;
1. Time and space
2. News Diary (Schleissenger)
Describe the third structural factor?
Competition; News outlets often try and target their publications to certain audiences, e.g;
The Sun is aimed at young W/C readers so it has relatively short stories and uses simplistic language
Describe the first political factor?
Some governments adopt direct forms of media censorship eg banning certain topics. Others adopt indirect forms eg having organisations and laws surrounding media content. News organisations themselves undertake indirect censorship through personal bias and perceived audience market (Chomsky and Herman)
Describe the second political factor?
Franklin argues the news is influenced, controlled and selected by governments who employ a number of news management techniques to ensure their able to give their preferred interpretation of events.
Define news values?
Spencer-Thomas; general guidelines that determine the worth of a news story and how much prominence it is given by the news.
List Galtung and Ruge's news values? (10)
7. Reference to elite nations
8. Reference to elite people
Define agenda setting?
Items in the media provide a discussion point for the rest of society, if news content is selected, this means the minority is affecting the majority.
The media can also limit what society discuss if they don't publish certain things.
What does Hall argue about news?
Supports capitalist interests; MPs attach greatest importance to the views of powerful and influential in society (primary definers). This is the hierarchy of credibility.
What does Manning say about the news?
The media ignores the views of other or minority groups and treats them as threats to society. These groups can't express any radical or extreme views in the media or they'll be ridiculed/ presented negatively.
What do Edwards and Cromwell say about news?
Media owners are nothing more than cheerleaders for Government and business and are engaged in the "dark art" of smearing anybody or anything than challenges/ threatens the dominant ideology of society and the existing social structure.
What do pluralists argue about the news?
It isn't socially constructed. Williams argues the news represents the world truthfully.
Investigative journalism often targets those in power.
What does Jones argue about radio news?
It is fair, neutral and balanced - all sides when discussing an event are given equal emphasis.
What does Schlesinger argue about the news?
There is now an acknowledgment among the powerful that the media is a tool to shape public perception of policies and behaviour.
How does new media suggest news isn't socially constructed?
New media has transformed the way people obtain the news and how it's gathered. Audiences have abandoned traditional sources of news in favour for new media. This allows every citizen to create their own news content and thus allows everyone a chance to share their view.
What does Drudge argue about new media?
Citizenship journalism "has allowed every citizen to be a reporter and have his or her voice equated with that of the rich and powerful"
What is a moral panic?
Stanley Cohen; refers to media reactions to particular social groups or activities that threaten societal values and thus create anxiety amongst the general population.
What do Goode and Ben-Yehuda say about moral panics?
Moral panics produce a "folk-devil"; a stereotype of deviance that suggests the perpetrators of the deviant activities are evil and steps need to be taken to control and neutralise their actions so society can return to "normality".
What are the 8 stages of a moral panic?
1. Media report a group using exaggerated language
2. Follow up articles identity group as folk-Devils
3. Media oversimplify reasons group has appeared
4. Moral entrepreneurs react and condemn group
5. Rise in police reports as group become more visible
6. Authorities stamp down on group
7. Group react by becoming more deviant in protest
8. More arrests result, statistics are reported and fulfil medias prophecy that the group was a problem.
Describe the cause of moral panics? (Reaction to rapid social change)
Furedi argues moral panics arise when society fails to adapt to dramatic social changes and it's felt there's a loss of control. Older people feel a real sense of loss, making them more susceptible to the anxieties encouraged by media moral panics.
Describe the cause of moral panics (a means of making profit)
Moral panics are the product of news values and the desire of MPs to sell papers. Moral panics sell tabloid papers, but after a while journalists abandon interest in them as they believe their audiences have lost interest too.
Describe the cause of moral panics (serving ruling class ideology)
Hall sees moral panics as Serbia an ideological function. His study of black muggers served the ideological purpose of;
1. Turning white W/C against black
2. Divert attention from mismanagement of capitalism by the capitalist class
3. Justifying repressive laws.
Describe the cause of moral panics (a reflection of people's real fears)
Left realists argue moral panics have a very real basis in reality. Portraying such crime as a fantasy is naive as it denies the very real harm that some types of crime have on particular communities or the sense of threat that older people feel.
What does Chandler argue about the news?
Newsreaders are presented as "neutral" observers in the way the read scripted news, dress formally and reduce body language.
The way TV news is presented results in it being regarded as the most reliable source of news by its audience.
What is new media?
Refers to 2 trends over the last 20 years;
1. The evolution of existing media delivery systems e.g 5 channels to 100s of channels
2. The emergence of new delivery technologies e.g mobiles, computers and tablets.
What is convergence?
Digitalisation resulted in the realisation that different ways of presenting a variety of types of info could all be combined into a single delivery system or media. Technological convergence has produced economic and social convergence.
What does Jenkins argue about convergence?
Convergence involves both a change in the way media are produces and consumed. He said "convergence is both a top-down corporate-driven process and a bottom-up consumer-driven process".
What is compression?
Digital technologies enable the compression of signals; this has led to an increase of channels as many signals can go through the same cable line. New markets are organised around the concept of "narrow-casting"; the transmission of particular types of media content to niche or even individualised consumers.
What does Boyle argue about compression?
He notes the focus of many media companies is now on creating a personalised media experience.
What is interactivity?
Interactive media lets users select stories they want to watch and when they want to watch them. It's been bought about by convergence. Producers and consumers are no longer separate roles. It's produced a collective intelligence as consuming new media tends to be a collective process.
What does Davies argue about the news?
British journalism is characterised by "churnalism"; the uncritical over reliance by journalists on "facts" produced by government spin doctors and PR experts. Journalism is forced into churnalism due to commercial pressures. They prefer to sermonise about the world rather than objectively report it.
What does Couldry argue?
He notes only 6 corporations operate the majority of major news worldwide. Resource pressure mean journalists have to compete with the entertainment sector, leading to tabloidisation. This has led to a decline in public trust in the media profession. The public is aware the news lacks balance and serves corporate interest over society.
What are 3 ways a media owner might influence the editorial priorities, fairness, transparency and impartiality of the news?
1. Owner may be directly involved in setting the editorial approach or policy of the news media.
2. Owner may influence the way news is gathered and presented.
3. Owners political/ business ideology may directly/ indirectly impact the choices of stories pursued by editors and how they're presented.
What does Bagdikian say about the power elite?
Almost all US media leaders are part of a wider power elite made up of a powerful industrial, financial and political establishment. Owners ensure content is conservative. The commercial pressure on journalists has meant the neutralisation of info and a reduction in objectivity due to fears it might offend the audience.
What do Herman and Chomsky argue about propaganda in the media?
Media performance is largely shaped by market forces and that built into the capitalist system is a range of fitters that work to shape media output. Media are owned by wealthy companies, funded by advertisers and depend on government and businesses for info, so they control the flow of info.
What do Glasgow University Media Group argue?
News is the product of social backgrounds of MPs (white, male, M/C). They unconsciously side with the rich and powerful as they have something in common.