Medic-legal aspects of alcohol intoxication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medic-legal aspects of alcohol intoxication Deck (17):
1

Law associated with alcohol

The National Road Traffic Act No. 93 of 1996

2

Blood alcohol limit

0.05 grams per 100ml

3

Breath alcohol limit

0.24 mg per 1000ml

4

Offences created in Section 65

- driving on a public road while under the influence
- occupying the driver's seat of a motor vehicle with the engine running on a public road

5

Sentences for National Road traffic act

- fine or imprisonment for <6 years

6

Law relating to taking blood samples for alcohol

Criminal Procedure Act No 51 of 1977

7

Formula used to calculate the probably amount of alcohol in tissue at time of blood taking

Widmark formula
A = p x c x r

8

Stages of alcohol intoxication

- slight effect
- under the influence
- drunk
- very drunk

9

Psychoactive ingredient in alcohol

Ethyl alcohol

10

Where is alcohol absorbed?

- 20% from stomach
- 80% from small bowel

11

Route of elimination of alcohol

- 90% metabolised in liver, initiated by ADH
- 5% by breath
- 5% by urine

12

Contents of a container used to take BAC

- potassium oxalate (anti-coagulant)
- sodium fluoride (enzyme inhibitor)

13

Lab method used to analyse BAC

Gas chromatography

14

10 main clinical findings in alcohol intoxication

- gait
- Rhomberg's sign
- incoordination
- speech
- pupils and nystagmus
- behaviour
- orientation to time and place
- concentration
- content of speech
- memory

15

Things that make a person sensitive to effects of alcohol

- extreme cold or fatigue
- pre-existing post concusisonal states
- chronic cerebro-vascular states
- cerebral depression by drugs
- neurological conditions
- psychological disorders

16

Differential diagnoses for alcohol intoxication

- acute anxiety
- traumatic chock
- head injuries
- acute stroke
- subarachnoid haemorrhage
- epilepsy
- acute febrile illness
- hypoglycaemia
- hyperglycaemia
- narcotic poisoning
- environmental intoxicants
- hyperthyroidism
- disseminated sclerosis
- intracranial tumours
- Parkinson's disease
- acute aural vertigo
- metabolic disorders
- mental disorders

17

Differentials of alcoholic coma

- acute head injury
- diabetes
- uraemia
- narcotic poisoning
- epilepsy