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Flashcards in Medic-legal aspects of alcohol intoxication Deck (21):
1

Law associated with alcohol

The National Road Traffic Act No. 93 of 1996

2

Blood alcohol limit

0.05 grams per 100ml

3

Breath alcohol limit

0.24 mg per 1000ml

4

Offences created in Section 65

- driving on a public road while under the influence
- occupying the driver's seat of a motor vehicle with the engine running on a public road

5

Sentences for National Road traffic act

- fine or imprisonment for <6 years

6

Law relating to taking blood samples for alcohol

Criminal Procedure Act No 51 of 1977

7

Formula used to calculate the probably amount of alcohol in tissue at time of blood taking

Widmark formula
A = p x c x r
A = total body alcohol
p = body mass
c = blood alcohol conc
r = factors

8

Stages of alcohol intoxication

- slight effect
- under the influence
- drunk
- very drunk

9

Psychoactive ingredient in alcohol

Ethyl alcohol

10

Where is alcohol absorbed?

- 20% from stomach
- 80% from small bowel

11

Route of elimination of alcohol

- 90% metabolised in liver, initiated by ADH
- 5% by breath
- 5% by urine

12

Contents of a container used to take BAC

- potassium oxalate (anti-coagulant)
- sodium fluoride (enzyme inhibitor)

13

Lab method used to analyse BAC

Gas chromatography

14

10 main clinical findings in alcohol intoxication

- gait
- Rhomberg's sign
- incoordination
- speech
- pupils and nystagmus
- behaviour
- orientation to time and place
- concentration
- content of speech
- memory

15

Things that make a person sensitive to effects of alcohol

- extreme cold or fatigue
- pre-existing post concusisonal states
- chronic cerebro-vascular states
- cerebral depression by drugs
- neurological conditions
- psychological disorders

16

Differential diagnoses for alcohol intoxication

- acute anxiety
- traumatic chock
- head injuries
- acute stroke
- subarachnoid haemorrhage
- epilepsy
- acute febrile illness
- hypoglycaemia
- hyperglycaemia
- narcotic poisoning
- environmental intoxicants
- hyperthyroidism
- disseminated sclerosis
- intracranial tumours
- Parkinson's disease
- acute aural vertigo
- metabolic disorders
- mental disorders

17

Differentials of alcoholic coma

- acute head injury
- diabetes
- uraemia
- narcotic poisoning
- epilepsy

18

Factors affecting alcohol absorption

- rate of passage into small intestine
- concentration of alcohol
- carbonated drinks
- drugs, physiological and genetic factors

19

Explain "R" in Widmark formula

Ratio between total body alcohol and blood alcohol conc
- high in people with low body fat
- low in people with high body fat

20

Law around blood alcohol levels in drivers

- if a specimen is taken within 2 hours of the alleged offence and is above he legal limit, it is presumed to have not been less at the time of the offence

21

Which other act is involved in taking blood for alcohol levels?

- criminal procedures act (act 51 of 1977)