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Flashcards in Medical Considerations Deck (207):
1

A complete or partial decrease in the secretion of insulin from the pancreas results in _________________.

Diabetes mellitus

2

If diabetes is not properly managed or if too little insulin is produced, the diabetic can develop __________.

Acidosis

3

An acute bout of acidosis is also referred to as_______________________.

Diabetic coma

4

A distinct sign of ketoacidosis is ____________________________.

Fruity-smelling breath

5

Early detection of __________________________ is essential to prevent life-threatening events.

Ketoacidosis

6

Insulin shock occurs when __________________________________.

The body has produced too much insulin and too little blood sugar

7

Insulin shock is also referred to as _________________________________.

Hypoglycemia

8

After a cerebral injury, an athlete must be free of all signs and symptoms for ________________ before returning to competition

24 hours

9

Acceleration/deceleration forces and rotational forces cause shaking of the _____________________.

Brain within the skull

10

Shearing forces acting on the brain can disrupt axonal connects that run __________________________________.

Between the cortex and the midbrain

11

The three major types of intracranial hematoma are _________________________________________________.

Intracerebral, Epidural, Subdural

12

Second-Impact Syndrome is potentially fatal because

Rapid intracranial swelling and herniation of the brain occurs

13

Intracranial bleeding requires

Hospitalization with a CT scan or MRI

14

Sudden cardiac death is caused by

Heart defects, Marfan’s Syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

15

Determining existing cardiac pathology is often obtained by:

resting/exercise electrocardiograms or echocardiograms

16

A murmur that exists is the absence of any organic disease is known as a ____________________.

Functional murmur

17

Contusions to the kidneys and/or bladder cause __________________________.

Hematuria

18

Athletic heart syndrome is essentially___________________________.

Asymptomatic

19

Signs of athletic heart syndrome include:

Bradycardia, systolic murmur, extra heart sounds

20

Athletic heart syndrome is determined through

ECG abnormalities

21

Sickle-Cell Disease before age 40 in the immediate family history may indicate:

congenital heart defects

22

Sickle-cell trait is an inherent risk factor of___________________________.

Rhabdomyolysis

23

A confounding symptom of sickle-cell anemia is _________________________.

Leg pain

24

What is the treatment for exertional hyponatremia

Do not try to rehydrate, transport to medical facility, sodium levels must be increased and fluid levels decreased

25

What is exertional hyponatremia

Fluid/electrolyte disorder resulting in low concentration of sodium in the blood

26

What must the injured patient take responsibility for during healing

The progress of injury and doing the necessary rehabilitation

27

At what mg/dL does the blood glucose become excessively high and goes into the urinalysis?

>250mg/dL

28

When glucose level is below 70 mg per dL what condition does it represent?

Hypoglycemia

29

Which of these ranges is the normal before meal blood sugar value according to American Diabetes Association (ADA)? 50 to 120mg/dL, 70 to 180mg/dL, 90 to 130mg/dL, 105 to 155mg/dL, 40 to 180mg/dL

90 to 130mg/dL

30

Which type of measles is also known as German measles?

Rubella

31

How is rubeola spread?

Mouth to mouth (direct/indirect) and airborne droplets

32

Which hepatitis types are considered sexual transmitted diseases?

A and B

33

What complication may arise in the first trimester of a pregnant women exposed to rubella?

Miscarriage or birth defects

34

How do you administer an EpiPen?

1) remove EpiPen from case 2) form fist around EpiPen, black tip pointing downward 3) using your other hand, pull off the gray safety release 4) swing (at 90 degree angle) and jab firmly into outer thigh for appx. 10 seconds 5) remove EpiPen from thigh and massage injection area for 10 seconds 6) carefully place the used EpiPen (without bending the needle), needle end first into the storage tube.

35

Etiology of Sickle cell trait?

Genetic and 8-10% African American carry sickle cell trait

36

What is sickle cell anemia? Who does it affect and what is the percentage?

Inherited blood disorder associated with crescent shaped red blood cell and reduced levels of hemoglobin. If you inherit 1 sickle cell gene you have the sickle cell trait. If you inherit 2 sickle cell genes, you have the sickle cell disease. 1% of African American develops sickle cell anemia.

37

Paroxysmal contractions are characterized by what disorder?

Epilepsy

38

What are Non-epileptic seizures?

Non-epilepsy seizures are not caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. They may be associated with psychological conditions or other physical problems. Non-epileptic are common. Some are caused by conditions such as hypoglycemia or a temporary change to the way the heart is working, etc.

39

What Is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is characterized by unpredictable seizures. Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder and affects people of all ages. A person is diagnosed with epilepsy if they have had at least two seizures that were not caused by some known and reversible medical condition like alcohol withdrawal or extremely low blood sugar. The seizures in epilepsy may be related to a brain injury or a family tendency, but often the cause is completely unknown.

40

Can people with non-epileptic seizures also have epilepsy?

Yes, some people experience more than one type of seizure activity. For example, around 15 in every 100 people with non-epileptic seizures (NES) also have epilepsy. Epileptic and non-epileptic seizures can look the same and have the same features but difference between the two is their cause.

41

What noticeable symptom does a person have when experiencing extreme hyperglycemia or DKA?

Ketones are responsible for the fruity odor on the breath of the person.

42

What is ketoacidosis (DKA)?

When the body is unable to move glucose from the blood to the cell to be used as an energy source, the body breaks down fats for fuel producing ketones in the blood. High levels of ketones causes the blood to become acidoitic.

43

Snacks for diabetic athletes should range from__1_ to __2_g of carbohydrates?

30 to 40grams of carbohydrate

44

If an baseline was been taken,___1___ can be used to allow the athlete to return to competition after an asthma attack.

1) peak flow meter

45

Peak flow meter measurement has three levels- green, yellow and red. What does each corresponding color represent?

Green- PEF> 80%: -person clear to work out without limitations
Yellow- 50%< 80%: -person should take medication to raise PEF; work outs might need to be altered, person should be monitored closely.
Red- PEF<50%- the person should be transported for emergency medical care

46

How would you assist an athlete in using a metered dose inhaler?

1) Remove cap. 2) shake inhaler 3) completely exhale through mouth 4) position inhaler in mouth so that it is upright and the lips create a good seal 5) press down on inhaler while slowly breathing in, deep inhalation 6) hold breath for about 10 seconds before exhaling 7) remove inhaler from mouth 8) repeat dose as directed by physician but wait about 1 minute before next dose

47

What medication should an asthmatic athlete have with them during practice in case of an asthma attack?

Albuterol

48

What is the etiology of rhabdomyolysis?

medications, supplements, trauma, toxins and other disease states or genetic condition

49

What are the characteristics of rhabdomyolysis?

Characteristics- hyperkalemia, dark urine, cramping, cardiac arrhythmias, acute renal failure and clotting cascade failure.

50

What can increase the risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis?

Sickle cell anemia

51

Non-epileptic seizures (NES) can be divided into two types. What are those two divisions?

Organic non-epileptic is caused by a physiological condition such as diabetes and may be relatively easy to diagnose.
Psychogenic: is caused by psychological factors such as subconscious thoughts, stress, and emotions. These type of seizures include dissociative seizures, panic attacks, factitious seizures.

52

When a person with sickle cell trait is exercising, there is the potential for the sickle cells to create a "log jam" in blood vessels and stop the blood flow. This can cause rapid muscle breakdown and potentially overwhelm the kidneys. What is this called?

Exertional sickling

53

With a patient with seizures when should a physician referral be given

A first seizure or a seizure lasting more than 5 minutes

54

What happens to a patient with cystic fibrosis

Thick secretions of the exocrine gland block the airway, which tends to become infected

55

What is the most common type or Cerebral Palsy

Spastic, demonstrating hypertonicity (constant spasm)

56

Hyperglycemia happens when the blood glucose is over what number

300mg/dl

57

Hypoglycemia happens when the blood glucose is under what number

70mg/dl

58

What is the cardinal sign of diabetic ketoacidosis

Fruity odor on the breath

59

What is the absence of menses called

Amenorrhea

60

What are the two phases of menstruation called

Follicular and luteal

61

What is hypertension defined as

Resting blood pressure greater than 140/90 on three consecutive occasions

62

What are signs of hypertension

Most are asymptomatic hower, headaches and epistaxis can happen

63

What is the primary risk of anemia

Malnutrition and chronic disease

64

What happens to the red blood cells with Sickle Cell Amenia

The RBCs become sickle shaped and inhibit binding of oxygen

65

What is rhabdomyolysis

The sudden catabolic destruction of the skeletal muscle

66

Hepatitis A virus is transmitted through _________ or __________

Close personal contact (oral-oral), contaminated food (oral-fecal)

67

What are the signs and symptoms of exertional sickling

Fever, severe fatigue, pallor skin, muscle weakness, and severe pain in the limbs and abdomen

68

When can an athlete return to play after suffering from exertional sickling?

After all symptoms have gone away

69

Signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolosis?

Muscle weakness, swelling, darkened urine and renal dysfunction

70

How does an athlete get rhabdomyolosis?

During intense exercise in extremely hot and humid environments

71

If internal hemorrhage is suspected ______ ________ should be closely monitored

Blood pressure

72

Signs and symptoms for ketoacidosis?

Fruity breath, feeling thirsty and urinating a lot, flushed, hot, dry skin

73

_______ is high blood pressure and ________ is low blood pressure

More than 140/90, less than 90/70

74

Hyperglycemia has a blood glucose level of above __________. Hypoglycemia has a blood glucose level of below

300 mg/dl, 70 mg/dl

75

_______ and ______ can cause exertional sickling

Increased muscle heat, low blood oxygen levels, high altitudes

76

What are some signs and symptoms of hyponatremia?

Progressively worsening headache, nausea and vomiting, swelling of hands and feet, lethargy, apathy, low blood sodium

77

Referred pain in the left shoulder due to spleen trauma is known as ______

Kehr’s Sign

78

Referred pain in the right arm can lead to a possible systemic pathology of __________, __________, and __________.

Liver injury, gallbladder disorder, lung cancer

79

What are the signs and symptoms of someone with psychosis?

Loss of contact with reality, having delusions and hallucinations, degeneration in personality

80

What does AVPU stand for when dealing with levels of consciousness?

Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive

81

A blunt blow to the anterior aspect of the eye can produce a ___________

Hyphema

82

Psychogenic shock is a temporary ____ of _______ ________

Dilation, blood vessels

83

Chronic _________ disorders cause clubbing of the fingertips and nails

Cardiovascular

84

Agonal breathing is a common sign of the early stages of ________ ________

Cardiac Arrest

85

What does OPQRST stand for when assessing cardiac distress?

Onset, Provocation, Quality, Radiation, Severity, Time

86

Psychogenic shock is a temporary ____ of _______ ________

Dilation, blood vessels

87

How do you calculate cardiac output?

Stroke volume x heart rate

88

_____ and _______ are the 2 most common sites for direct pressure to help slow hemorrhage.

Brachial artery and femoral artery

89

If one or both pupils are dilated, the patient may have sustain a ______ injury

Head

90

______, ________, and ______ are some effects of anabolic steroid use in teens

Acne, voice deepening, premature closure of long bones

91

If an athlete has ________ or ________ major seizures, they should not participate in collision sports

Daily, weekly

92

What are some symptoms of low oxygen saturation levels?

Cyanosis, shortness of breath, fatigue and weakness, mental confusion, headache

93

Signs of abnormal heart beat

Uneven pattern of beats
Some beats strong and some are weaker
Ticks erratically

94

_________ 5 stages of maturity is used as an assessment of secondary sexual characteristics

Tanner’s

95

What is a somatotype?

Physical body types: ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph

96

What are examples of osteokinematics?

Abduction, Adduction, Flexion, Extension, Internal and External Rotation

97

What is pathomechanics?

Mechanical forces that are applied to the body

98

How does pathomechanics influence movement/function?

Can lead to faulty alignment, structural deviations, can cause overuse injuries

99

Breathing in which the rate speeds up and then slows down over a one- to three-minute period is called what?

Cheyne-Stokes breathing

100

A series of normal breaths followed by a complete cessation of breathing is termed what?

Biot’s breathing

101

T/F. Thoracic breathing occurs without the use of the diaphragm.

True

102

T/F. Boyle’s law states that the relation between the volume and the pressure of a gas is constant’ as volume increases, pressure decreases, and vice versa.

True

103

______ is a harsh, raspy sound that is audible upon inspiration, often even without a stethoscope.

Stridor

104

T/F. If no other injuries are present, an athlete can return to play after a pneumothorax within days of discharge from the hospital.

True

105

T/F. Cystic fibrosis is the most commonly inherited disorder among Caucasian Americans.

True

106

A congenital condition of the exocrine glands that affects the pancreas, respiratory system, and other systems is termed: ______ ______.

Cystic Fibrosis

107

T/F. Sickle cell disease is an inherited condition that produces abnormally shaped WBCs.

False, RBC

108

Sudden death in people with sickle cell trait is usually caused by ______.

Emboli

109

T/F. Risk for sickle cell crisis is greater during exercise in cold and high altitude environments.

false, hot and high altitude

110

Sickle cell trait is also a risk factor for ______.

acute exertional rhabdomyolysis

111

Signs and symptoms of anemia include: _____.

pallor, swollen tongue, spooning (thin, concave) nails, scaly lips with fissures at the edges, fatigue, and impaired attention

112

Warning signs for sickle cell crisis include: ______.

severe muscle cramping on the legs, buttocks, and low back, tachycardia, hypotension, hyperventilation, and loss of consciousness

113

Effective management of sickle cell crisis requires ______ ______, and ______.

early recognition, immediate referral

114

T/F. Most studies indicate that exercise neither causes nor exacerbate true anemia.

True

115

T/F. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a classification for diseases involving partially blocked airways.

True

116

The signs and symptoms of dyspnea include: ______.

increased breathing effort, a barrerl-chested/hyperinflated, appearance, and signs of infection and cor pulmonale

117

Chronic bronchitis is caused by what?

prolonged or repeated exposure to irritants that inflame the bronchial mucous membranes

118

T/F. An acute asthma attack can produce a pneumothorax, acute right heart failure, hypoxemia, and metabolic collapse

True

119

A suspected pneumothorax is treated by: ______.

splinting the thorax by hugging a pillow, calming the patient to control coughing or gasping for air, monitoring vital signs, sealing any open wounds with an occlusive dressing, and immediate emergency transport

120

A ______ is an instrument used to measure lung volumes during ventilation.

spirometer

121

Adventitious sounds, which are heard in addition to the normal breathing sounds include: ______

rales, rhonchi, stridor, and pulmonary friction rub

122

Normal breathing in adults is ______ to ______ breaths per minute.

10-15

123

Cyanosis occurs when oxygen saturation in arterial blood decreases below ______%.

85%

124

The position in which the arms are rigidly flexed and the legs are fixed in extension is termed: ______.

decorticate posturing

125

The position in which the arms and legs are both rigidly extended is termed: ______.

decerebrate posturing

126

A direct blow to the head or body contact that causes the head to snap forward, backward or rotate side to side is called a ______ or another name for this injury would be blank__________.

Concussion or Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

127

21. A patient with too much insulin and too little blood sugar will start to experience what?

Insulin shock

128

22. True or False, In Hemophiliacs, physical exertion can cause bleeding into muscle and joints, which can be extremely painful or eventually may cause the joints to be immobile.

True

129

25. A rapid heartbeat over 100 bpm is called what?

Tachycardia

130

26. _______ is a serious condition because it is a decrease or insufficient supply of oxygen in inspired gases, arterial blood or tissues.

Hypoxia

131

29. Antibiotics are used to treat____ infections.

Bacterial

132

34. ____bluish tint in the fingernails, lips, face, and mucus membranes that occurs when oxygen saturation drops below 85%.

Cyanosis

133

31. When administering an EpiPen, jab firmly into the outer thigh until what happens?

The pen clicks and hold for 10 seconds

134

35. A peak flow meter or _______, is used to measure lung volumes during ventilation.

Spirometer

135

37. ________ is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle tissue breaks down rapidly and released into the bloodstream causing harm to the kidneys.

Rhabdomyolysis

136

38. _____ (cold sore/fever blister) is caused by HSV-1 and can present as a single or cluster of vesicles on the lips.

Herpes Labialis

137

Skin fold sites

most common are thigh, suprailiac, triceps, abdomen, and chest

138

menarche

The onset of menstuation

139

Sequela

pathological condition which occurs as a consequence of another condition or event

140

Exertional hyponatremia

excessive loss of essential electrolytes during exercise

141

Cystic fibrosis

condition that affects the mucus, sweat, and digestive juices which damages the lungs and digestive system

142

Skin cancer check

ABDCE: asymmetry, border, color, diameter, elevated

143

An ischemic brain injury that occurs during birth is known as what?

Cerebral Palsy

144

A genetic abnormality that affects exocrine glands, primarily in the respiratory system and digestive tract, which result in blocking the airway, and infections, is known as _____.

Cystic Fibrosis

145

What are some differences between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia?

Hypo - gradual onset, thirst but not hunger, fruity breath. Hyper - sudden onset, hunger but not thirst, blurred vision, dizzy

146

If an athlete has a blood glucose reading of <100 before practice, what should you advise them to do?

Eat a snack high in carbs

147

What are the dangers of an ectopic pregnancy?

Severe internal bleeding, vaginal bleeding, syncope, shock

148

What produces similar symptoms as appendicitis in females?

Ovarian cysts

149

Hypertension is when the blood pressure is above ____.

140/90

150

What is the sudden catabolic destruction of skeletal muscle?

Rhabdomyolysis

151

What happens to the red blood cells when someone has Sickle Cell Anemia?

They are deformed and clot easily

152

What kind of weather can be a major risk factor for a person with Sickle Cell?

Hot and humid

153

What is the body lacking during exertional hyponutremia?

Sodium

154

When using a peak flow meter, what percentage of an athlete's personal best requires the emergency room?

50%

155

What does myalgia mean?

Muscle pain

156

Who makes the final decision if a disabled athlete can participate in sports?

The athlete

157

What is the difference in pulse of an athlete suffering from heat exhaustion vs. heat stroke?

Exhaustion is rapid and weak. Stroke is rapid and strong.

158

What are you listening for in the heart when doing a PPE?

Murmurs, abnormal sounds, irregular heart beat

159

What artery/arteries are being occluded in Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?

Subclavian or axillary

160

What levels are considered to by hyper and hypoglycemic when checking blood sugar?

Hypo/ 200mg/dl

161

What are the stage of disease prevention?

primary, secondary, tertiary

162

What is considered prehypertension?

120-139/80-89

163

What should be included in a medical history?

chief complaint, description and course of present illness, personal medical history, family medical history, review of systems

164

What is the point on the abdomen where it is indicative of Appendicitis?

McBurney’s Point

165

Kehr’s signs is indicative of what?

Spleen injury

166

What are signs of hyperglycemia?

- blood glucose >200 mg/dl, gradual onset, abdominal pain, thirst but not hunger, fruity odor, dehydration, lethargy, confusion, LOC

167

What are the percentages of the peak flow meter that rate someone as green, yellow, red?

-green/ >80%
-yellow/50<50%

168

What Does ABCDE stand for when looking at skin abnormalities?

Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, Elevation

169

What should be included in a medical history?

chief complaint, description and course of present illness, personal medical history, family medical history, review of systems

170

What is Rhabdomyolysis?

Break down of muscle tissue that is released into the blood stream

171

What are some signs and symptoms of Rhabdomyolysis?

Dark red or brown urine, reduced or no urine output, muscle tenderness, muscle stiffness, and fatigue

172

What causes Rhabdomyolysis

Drugs such as amphetamines, injuries, high body temperatures,and long periods of immobilization

173

What is the treatment of rhabdomyolysis

Fluids through an IV to maintain urine output

174

T/F can you go back to normal activities after having rhabdomyolysis

True

175

What happens to the Kidney's of those who have rhabdomyolysis

There can be tubular damage or acute renal failure

176

What is the time frame of healing for rhabdomyolysis

A few week to months depending on the amount of kidney damage

177

What causes sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation in the gene that makes hemoglobin

178

What is the difference between sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait

Sickle cell disease causes pain to a patient because of blocked blood flow
Sickle cell trait can have some to no symptoms

179

What are the signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease

Pain, fatigue, dizziness,headaches, and cold feet/hands

180

What causes sickle cell trait

The inheritance of one gene of sickle cell hemoglobin and one normal one from the parents.

181

What can help sickle cell disease minimize symptoms during play?

Rests between sprints and/or coming out of play when they feel dizzy or have a headache

182

What can an athletic trainer do to help those with sickle cell during play

Make sure they have enough rest during high endurance play or practice, supplemental oxygen, and when in high altitudes have the player sit out of the game

183

T/F is there treatment for sickle cell trait

False there is no treatment for the individuals

184

T/F if an individual has sickle cell trait do they have the symptoms that individuals with sickle cell disease have

False individuals who have the sickle cell trait live normal lives they have only inherited the gene from one of their parents

185

T/F sickle cell trait is only seen in African Americans

False

186

T/F is sickle cell disease a blood disorder

True

187

T/F sudden death in individuals with sickle cell trait is caused by an emboli

True

188

T/F Those with sickle cell disease are at risk for rhabdomyolysis

True

189

What other conditions does sickle cell crisis mimic

Cardiac arrest and/or heat illness

190

What are some warning signs of sickle cell crisis

Severe muscle cramping in the legs, buttocks, and low back; Tachycardia, hypotension, hyperventilation, and loss of consciousness

191

T/F sickle cell crisis is greater during exercise in cold and high altitude environments

False it is greater in hot and high altitude environments

192

What is a normal pulse oximetry for a healthy individual

Anywhere from 94-96%

193

What is the normal pulse oximetry for a individual with mild respiratory disease

90% or above

194

What is an unsafe range of pulse oximetry

Below 90%

195

T/F supplemental oxygen is given to an individual that has a pulse oximetry of 88%

True

196

What is hypoxia

Inadequate oxygenation of blood

197

What is the immediate treatment of hypoxia

Deliver oxygen to the athlete whether it be with supplemental oxygen or cpr

198

What are some signs of hypoxia

Altered mental status, tachycardia, chest pain, dyspnea, tachypnea, hypoventilation, cyanosis, Headache, nausea, vomiting, poor judgment, uncoordinated movements

199

What is the difference between an epileptic seizure and non-epileptic seizure

The difference is that non-epileptic seizures are not recurrent. Epileptic seizures are recurrent and is a disorder

200

What are the signs and symptoms of an epileptic seizure

A lose of cognitive awareness, a blank stare, lose of postural control, extreme postural ridgitity and convulsions

201

What are the two types of seizures?

Petit mal and gran mal

202

What is the treatment of an epileptic seizure?

Sedatives and tranquilizers

203

What causes seizures?

Seizures are a result from a sudden electrochemical discharge in the brain

204

T/F you should put something in the mouth of a person having a seizure to ensure they don’t swallow their tongue?

False

205

How long do epileptic seizures last?

A few seconds to minutes

206

T/F a referral is needed when a person has had their first seizure or a seizure lasting more than 5 minutes?

True

207

T/F people with epilepsy experience seizures before the age of 30 years old?

True