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Flashcards in Medical Services Deck (92):
1

What % of British deaths in the Crimea were due to disease

80%

2

How many medical attendants were there per 100 men

4

3

WHO WAS THE CHEIF BRISH ARMY medical officer

Sir John Hall

4

Who stated "the scant number of attendants was in strict conformity w his own orders"
when referring to Raglan's disapproval of the Medical Corps

Sir John Hall

5

Between 1854-55 what fraction of the British army died of disease

1/3

6

Where was a major hospital base set up that could cater for 6,000

Scutari

7

How many could the hospital base at Scutari cater for?

6000

8

When did Nightingale arrive at Scutari

November 1854

9

Who was Head of Nursing Staff at Scutari

Florence Nightingale

10

Who was Nightingale to report to at Scutari

Dr. Menzies

11

What were nurses restricted in doing

Weren't allowed to dress wounds,

Only allowed to do linen, food, clothes etc.

12

What did Nightingale write to hospital directors about the nurses beneath her

"not well fitted"

13

Who appointed Nightingale in her position

Sydney Herbert

14

What did Sydney Herbert do in terms of nurses at Scutari?

Who objected to this?

Increase number of nurses

Nightingale objected - felt as though she had been undermined and not consulted

15

What did Nightingale do in response to Herbert increasing the number of nurses in Scutari

wrote to him and said the nurses were not needed

resigned days after they arrived

16

What theory did Nightingale never accept

the germ theory of disease travelling by air

17

How was the death rate in hospitals Nightingale worked at?

Higher than those in similar institutions

18

Who was colonel tulloch

creator of the Hospital Conveyance Corps

19

Who was the junior minister at the war office

Sidney Herbert

20

Who set up the sanitary commission

Lord Padmure

21

Who was Dr. John Hall?

Inspector general of hospitals

22

How many hospital ships were there pre-1855

1

23

By 1855 how many hospital ships were there

4

24

Name one of the hospital ships

Cambria in Varna

25

What was used as an anaesthetic

Chloroform

26

What % of the death rate was from 'shock' during amputation

25%

27

What was the death rate from shock reduced to by May 1855

5.2%

28

When did the Sanitary Commission arrive out in Crimea

March 1855

29

Why was there a lack of medical assistance?

Raglan believed troops should have priority on board ships

30

A lack of sanitary facilities lead to diseases including

dysentry and cholera

31

Who opposed medical reform

Duke of Wellington

32

Who formed the Ordnance Medical Department in 1835?

Dr. Andrew Smith

33

The size of the Ordnance Medical Department was a problem, what did they establish a major base hospital out of in Scutari?

old ottoman barracks

34

What was the average number of days a patient would wait between being bathed?

80

35

What did Nightingale organise in terms of washing?

'Washing Establishment'

36

What was the role of the washing establishment?

To clean supplies and bathe patients

37

Who else apart from nurses became involved in the Washing Establishment

the wives of patients

38

How many nurses was nightingale in charge of

38

39

When Nightingale returned to Britain what did she open

Nightingale Training School for Nurses in St. Thomas'

40

Who's government were the Sanitary Commission sent by?

Palmerston

41

What X3 things did the sanitary commission do

1. flushed out and repaired sewers
2. improved ventilation
3. overhauled sanitary conditions in field hospitals and camps

42

What happened to the death rate in Scutari when the Sanitary Commission arrived in March 1855

down to 5.2% by May 1855

43

When did the Nightingale Training School for nurses open

1860

44

How much was Nightingale in charge of with the Times Fund

£7000

45

The death rate rose in Scutari whilst Nightingale was there - what did it rise to by Feb 1855?

52%

46

When did the death toll in Scutari hit 52%

Feb 1855

47

Who was Thomas Chenery

the first Times reporter within the Crimea

48

What was the catalyst behind Nightingale and her nurses being sent to the Crimea

Thomas Chenery's reports

49

When did Chenery's first significant report appear on the plight of the wounded?

after the Battle of Alma (9th October)

50

Who stated "many of the surgeons seem through excess of work, almost as exhausted as those under their care,,,"

Thomas Chenery

Times reporter

51

What did Chenery recommend and appeal for

Recommended set up of depots around the country

Appealed for money

52

Nurse who was present at all major battles (except the battle of alma which she was too late for)

Mary Seacole

53

Who did Seacole team up with to get to the Crimea?

Thomas Day

54

What company did Seacole help set up?

Seacole and Day

55

What did Seacole set up with Day in Balaclava?

store selling home comforts and a 'hotel' close to the front line

56

What was not allowed in Seacole's set up

Gambling

57

Who did Mary offer her nursing services to but was rejected?

British authorities and Nightingale

58

What as the name of Seacole's hotel

'British Hotel'

59

What money did Mary have when she came back from the Crimea

None - bankrupt

60

How did Mary survive after the war?

A fund with money raised by public and ex-soldiers

and her book

61

What had Seacole previously had experience in treating

Cholera victims

62

Who sent a prefabricated hospital to the Crimea after seeing newspaper reports

Isambard Kingdom Brunel

63

How did Seacole raise funds for her 'hotel'

retailed items to lodgers

64

What X5 positive impacts did Nightingale have

1. improved kitchens / food @ Scutari

2. Cleaned wards and organised Washing Establishment

3. Used Times fund to buy medicine / equipment

4. Reported to government on problems

5. Bypassed bureaucracy to get things done

65

What -4 negative impacts did Nightingale have

1. regarded Seacole as unsound and didn't offer help

2. offended when Stanley and her nurses arrived
resigned after Herbert sent more

3. death toll increase in her first few months

4. adamant infection was caused by foul vapours

66

In 1857 what establishment was set up with Nightingale's influence included

Commission on the Health of the Army

67

When was the Commission on the Health of the Army set up

1857

68

What did the Commission on the Health of the Army (1857) do

collected statistics on sanitation and army health

69

What was Andrew Smith (Director of Army medical services) later appointed

Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
after being exonerated

70

Name a naval surgeon who worked on the HMS Vulcan

James Peters

71

What was the role of the HMS Vulcan

operated in the Black sea transporting wounded from Alma to Constantinople

72

How many patients could the HMS Vulcan have on board?

500

73

Why does James Peters (naval surgeon) believe so many contracted disease on the HMS Vulcan

overcrowding

patients being placed on decks

74

How many bedpans / urinals on board HMS Vulcan

X1 of each

75

What did Russell compare British medical conditions to the French as

'disgraceful'

76

What did the French have and British lack in terms of medical services which Russell admired

"well appointed hospital vans"

77

By when were old Ottoman barracks at Scutari cleaned out and made ready as a hospital

July 1854

78

When was the General Hospital established in Crimea

Sept 1854

79

What was Dr. Smith told prior to war that the number of British forces would total

10,000

80

What did Colonel Tulloch 'solve'

the problem of no stretcher-bearers

81

What did Colonel Tulloch's Hospital Conveyance Corps provide

Army pensioners to act as stretcher bearers

82

Which hospital ship was transformed into a troop transporter in 1854

Varna

83

What action shows Seacole's dedication to being on the front line

first woman inside Sebastopol after Russians evacuated

84

When was the Nightingale Fund launched

November 1855

85

Who launched the Nightingale Fund

Sidney Herbert

86

What did Nightingale claim in the late 1850s which prevented her having more involvement in her institution and with the Nightingale fund

poor health

87

What recognition from the Queen did Nightingale receive

invitation to the Palace

88

When did Seacole arrive back in England

July 1856

89

What was done in 1857 that demonstrated appreciation for Seacole

concert held to raise money to support her

90

How many died in Scutari Base Hospital during Nightingale's stay

5,000

91

When did Nightingale leave the Crimea?

March 1855

92

Where did Sydney Herbert announce that nurses would be sent out to the Crimea at Nightingale's requisition

Morning Chronicle