Flashcards in Medical Services Deck (92):
What % of British deaths in the Crimea were due to disease
How many medical attendants were there per 100 men
WHO WAS THE CHEIF BRISH ARMY medical officer
Sir John Hall
Who stated "the scant number of attendants was in strict conformity w his own orders"
when referring to Raglan's disapproval of the Medical Corps
Sir John Hall
Between 1854-55 what fraction of the British army died of disease
Where was a major hospital base set up that could cater for 6,000
How many could the hospital base at Scutari cater for?
When did Nightingale arrive at Scutari
Who was Head of Nursing Staff at Scutari
Who was Nightingale to report to at Scutari
What were nurses restricted in doing
Weren't allowed to dress wounds,
Only allowed to do linen, food, clothes etc.
What did Nightingale write to hospital directors about the nurses beneath her
"not well fitted"
Who appointed Nightingale in her position
What did Sydney Herbert do in terms of nurses at Scutari?
Who objected to this?
Increase number of nurses
Nightingale objected - felt as though she had been undermined and not consulted
What did Nightingale do in response to Herbert increasing the number of nurses in Scutari
wrote to him and said the nurses were not needed
resigned days after they arrived
What theory did Nightingale never accept
the germ theory of disease travelling by air
How was the death rate in hospitals Nightingale worked at?
Higher than those in similar institutions
Who was colonel tulloch
creator of the Hospital Conveyance Corps
Who was the junior minister at the war office
Who set up the sanitary commission
Who was Dr. John Hall?
Inspector general of hospitals
How many hospital ships were there pre-1855
By 1855 how many hospital ships were there
Name one of the hospital ships
Cambria in Varna
What was used as an anaesthetic
What % of the death rate was from 'shock' during amputation
What was the death rate from shock reduced to by May 1855
When did the Sanitary Commission arrive out in Crimea
Why was there a lack of medical assistance?
Raglan believed troops should have priority on board ships
A lack of sanitary facilities lead to diseases including
dysentry and cholera
Who opposed medical reform
Duke of Wellington
Who formed the Ordnance Medical Department in 1835?
Dr. Andrew Smith
The size of the Ordnance Medical Department was a problem, what did they establish a major base hospital out of in Scutari?
old ottoman barracks
What was the average number of days a patient would wait between being bathed?
What did Nightingale organise in terms of washing?
What was the role of the washing establishment?
To clean supplies and bathe patients
Who else apart from nurses became involved in the Washing Establishment
the wives of patients
How many nurses was nightingale in charge of
When Nightingale returned to Britain what did she open
Nightingale Training School for Nurses in St. Thomas'
Who's government were the Sanitary Commission sent by?
What X3 things did the sanitary commission do
1. flushed out and repaired sewers
2. improved ventilation
3. overhauled sanitary conditions in field hospitals and camps
What happened to the death rate in Scutari when the Sanitary Commission arrived in March 1855
down to 5.2% by May 1855
When did the Nightingale Training School for nurses open
How much was Nightingale in charge of with the Times Fund
The death rate rose in Scutari whilst Nightingale was there - what did it rise to by Feb 1855?
When did the death toll in Scutari hit 52%
Who was Thomas Chenery
the first Times reporter within the Crimea
What was the catalyst behind Nightingale and her nurses being sent to the Crimea
Thomas Chenery's reports
When did Chenery's first significant report appear on the plight of the wounded?
after the Battle of Alma (9th October)
Who stated "many of the surgeons seem through excess of work, almost as exhausted as those under their care,,,"
What did Chenery recommend and appeal for
Recommended set up of depots around the country
Appealed for money
Nurse who was present at all major battles (except the battle of alma which she was too late for)
Who did Seacole team up with to get to the Crimea?
What company did Seacole help set up?
Seacole and Day
What did Seacole set up with Day in Balaclava?
store selling home comforts and a 'hotel' close to the front line
What was not allowed in Seacole's set up
Who did Mary offer her nursing services to but was rejected?
British authorities and Nightingale
What as the name of Seacole's hotel
What money did Mary have when she came back from the Crimea
None - bankrupt
How did Mary survive after the war?
A fund with money raised by public and ex-soldiers
and her book
What had Seacole previously had experience in treating
Who sent a prefabricated hospital to the Crimea after seeing newspaper reports
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
How did Seacole raise funds for her 'hotel'
retailed items to lodgers
What X5 positive impacts did Nightingale have
1. improved kitchens / food @ Scutari
2. Cleaned wards and organised Washing Establishment
3. Used Times fund to buy medicine / equipment
4. Reported to government on problems
5. Bypassed bureaucracy to get things done
What -4 negative impacts did Nightingale have
1. regarded Seacole as unsound and didn't offer help
2. offended when Stanley and her nurses arrived
resigned after Herbert sent more
3. death toll increase in her first few months
4. adamant infection was caused by foul vapours
In 1857 what establishment was set up with Nightingale's influence included
Commission on the Health of the Army
When was the Commission on the Health of the Army set up
What did the Commission on the Health of the Army (1857) do
collected statistics on sanitation and army health
What was Andrew Smith (Director of Army medical services) later appointed
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
after being exonerated
Name a naval surgeon who worked on the HMS Vulcan
What was the role of the HMS Vulcan
operated in the Black sea transporting wounded from Alma to Constantinople
How many patients could the HMS Vulcan have on board?
Why does James Peters (naval surgeon) believe so many contracted disease on the HMS Vulcan
patients being placed on decks
How many bedpans / urinals on board HMS Vulcan
X1 of each
What did Russell compare British medical conditions to the French as
What did the French have and British lack in terms of medical services which Russell admired
"well appointed hospital vans"
By when were old Ottoman barracks at Scutari cleaned out and made ready as a hospital
When was the General Hospital established in Crimea
What was Dr. Smith told prior to war that the number of British forces would total
What did Colonel Tulloch 'solve'
the problem of no stretcher-bearers
What did Colonel Tulloch's Hospital Conveyance Corps provide
Army pensioners to act as stretcher bearers
Which hospital ship was transformed into a troop transporter in 1854
What action shows Seacole's dedication to being on the front line
first woman inside Sebastopol after Russians evacuated
When was the Nightingale Fund launched
Who launched the Nightingale Fund
What did Nightingale claim in the late 1850s which prevented her having more involvement in her institution and with the Nightingale fund
What recognition from the Queen did Nightingale receive
invitation to the Palace
When did Seacole arrive back in England
What was done in 1857 that demonstrated appreciation for Seacole
concert held to raise money to support her
How many died in Scutari Base Hospital during Nightingale's stay
When did Nightingale leave the Crimea?