Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 2 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 2 Deck (188):
1

chronic

of long duration. (pg14)

2

disease

a condition in which one or more body parts are not functioning normally. (pg14)

3

chronic fatigue syndrome

a persistent overwhelming fatigue of unknown origin. (pg14)

4

CFS

an abbreviation for ... "chronic fatigue syndrome". (pg14)

5

ileum

the last and longest portion of the small intestine. Memory aid: "il-e-um" is spelled with an "E" as in "int-e-stine". (pg14)

6

ilium

part of the hip bone. Memory aid: "il-i-um" is spelled with an "I" as in "hip".(pg14)

7

exudate

fluid, such as pus, that leaks out of an infected wound. (pg14)

8

erythema

redness. (pg15)

9

hyperthermia

heat. (pg15)

10

mucous

the specialized membranes that line the body cavities. (pg15)

11

mucus

fluid secreted by mucous membranes. (pg15)

12

myc/o

a combining form meaning ... fungus. (pg15)

13

myel/o

a combining form meaning ... bone marrow or spinal cord. (pg15)

14

my/o

a combining form meaning ... muscle. (pg15)

15

-ologist

a suffix meaning ... specialist. (pg15)

16

dermat

a word root meaning ... skin. (pg15)

17

neo-

a prefix meaning ... new. (pg15)

18

pyel/o

a combining form meaning ... renal pelvis, which is part of the kidney. (pg16)

19

pyelitis

an inflammation of the renal pelvis. (pg16)

20

py/o

a combining form meaning ... pus. (pg16)

21

pyoderma

any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo. (pg16)

22

pyr/o

a combining form meaning ... fever or fire. (pg16)

23

heartburn

also known as "pyrosis". (pg16)

24

virile

having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male. (pg16)

25

MS

an abbreviation not to be used ... can mean either "morphine sulfate" or "magnesium sulfate". (pg17)

26

QD or QOD

an abbreviation not to be used ... means "daily" or "every other day", sometimes mistaken for each other. (pg17)

27

U

an abbreviation not to be used ... means "units", sometimes mistaken for "0" or "4". (pg17)

28

megal/o

a combining form meaning ... large, great. (pg8)

29

micr/o

a combining form meaning ... small. (pg8)

30

oste/o, ost/o

a combining form meaning ... bone. (pg542)

31

-ar, -ic, -ac

pertaining to

32

-crine

to secrete

33

-eal

pertaining to

34

-ic

pertaining to

35

-ior

pertaining to

36

-ose

pertaining to

37

-pathy

disease

38

-plasia

formation

39

-plasm

formative material of cells

40

-stasis

control

41

-tics

pertaining to

42

-trophy

development

43

a-

without

44

abdomin(o)-

abdomen

45

abdominal cavity or abdomen

contains primarily the major organs of digestion

46

abdominopelvic cavity

refers to two cavities as a single unit

47

aden(o)-

glands

48

adenectomy

surgical removal of a gland

49

adenocarcinoma

malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue

50

adenoma

benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue

51

adenomalacia

abnormal softening of a gland

52

adenosclerosis

abnormal hardening of a gland

53

adenosis

any disease condition of a gland

54

adip-

fat

55

adipose tissue

fat - provides protective padding, insulation, and support

56

adult stem cells

somatic stem cells - undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ

57

airborne transmission

occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze (cold, flu, TB, measles)

58

ana-

excessive

59

anal atresia

congenital absence of the opening at the bottom end of the anus

60

anaplasia

change in the structure of the cells and in their orientation to each other (tumors, cancer)

61

anatomic position

describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position that includes: standing up straight so that body is erect and facing forward; holding arms at sides with hands turned with palms turned toward front

62

anatomic reference systems

used to describe the locations of the structural units of the body

63

anatomy

study of the structures of the body

64

anomaly

deviation from what is regarded as normal

65

anter(o)-

front or before

66

anterior

situated in the front; front or forward part of an organ (opposite to posterior)

67

aplasia

defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue

68

atresia

congenital absence of a normal opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular

69

autopsy

postmorten examination

70

benign

not life-threatening

71

bilateral

relating to, or having, two sides

72

birth injuries

congenital disorder that were not present before the events surrounding the time of birth

73

bloodborne transmission

spread of disease through contact with blood or other body fluid that are contaminated with blood (HIV, hepatitis B, STDs)

74

body cavities

spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs

75

body planes

imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used the divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes

76

carcin-

cancerous

77

caud(o)-

tail or lower part of the body

78

caudal

toward the lower part of the body (opposite to cephalic)

79

cell membrane

tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment

80

cells

basic structural and functional units of the body

81

cephal(o)-

head

82

cephalic

toward the head (opposite to caudal)

83

cerebral palsy

result of brain damage, can be caused by premature birth or not enough oxygen to the brain during birth

84

chondr(i)-

cartilage

85

chromosomes

genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell

86

communicable

capable of being transmitted

87

communicable disease

condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects - contagious disease

88

congenital

existing at birth

89

congenital disorder

abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth

90

connective tissue

supports and connects organs and other body tissue

91

contamination

the pathogen is possibly present

92

cord blood

found in umbilical cord and placenta of a newborn infant

93

cranial cavity

located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain

94

cystic fibrosis (CF)

genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems

95

cyt(o)-

cell or hollow place

96

cytology

study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell

97

cytoplasm

material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

98

cytoplasm

the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

99

degeneration

worsening condition

100

dem(o)-

population

101

dense connective tissue

form the joints and framework of the body - bone or cartilage

102

developmental disorder

anomaly or malformation such as absence of the limb or the presence of an extra toe - birth defect

103

diaphragm

muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

104

differentiated

having a specialized function of structure

105

distal

situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure (opposite to proximal)

106

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

107

dominant gene

inherited from either parent - the offspring will inherit that genetic condition or characteristic

108

dors-

back of the organ or body (opposite of ventral)

109

dorsal

refers to the back of the organ or body

110

dorsal cavity

located along the back of the body and head - divided into cranial cavity and spinal cavity

111

double helix

consists of two helixes twisted together

112

Down syndrome (DS)

genetic variation that is associated with characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease

113

dysplasia

abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs

114

embryonic stem cells

undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell, can form any cell

115

en-

within

116

endemic

the ongoing presence of a disease within the population, group, or area

117

endo-

within

118

endocrine glands

produce homones - do not have ducts

119

endothelium

specialized epithelial tissue that lines blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

120

epi-

above

121

epidemic

sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area

122

epidemiologist

specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group

123

epidermis

outer layer of the skin

124

epigastric region

above the stomach

125

epithelial tissue

form a protective covering for all internal and external surfaces of body

126

epithelium

specialized epithelial tissue that forms epidermis of the skin and surface layer of mucous membranes

127

eti-

cause

128

etiology

study of causes of diseases

129

exo-

out of

130

exocrine glands

secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body - sweat glands

131

fetal alcohol syndrome

caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during the pregnancy

132

fetal alcohol syndrome

physical and behavioral traits, including growth abnormalities, mental retardation, brain damage, socialization difficulties

133

adenitis

inflammation of a gland

134

food-borne and water-borne transmission

eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present - (fecal-oral transmission)

135

frontal plane

vertical plane that divides the body into arterior (front) and posterior (back) portions - coronal plane

136

functional disorder

produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified - (ex. panic attack)

137

gametic cell mutation

change within the genes in a gamete (sex cells) that can be transmitted by a parent

138

gene

fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity

139

gene-

producing

140

genetic mutation

change of sequence of a DNA molecule

141

genetic disorder

pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene - hereditary disorder

142

genetic engineering

manipulating or splicing of genes for scientific or medical purposes

143

genetic mutation

change of sequence of a DNA molecule

144

geneticist

specialist in field of genetics

145

genetics

study of how genes are transferred from parent to their children and the role of genes in health and disease

146

genome

complete set of genetic information of an individual

147

geriatrician

physician who specializes in the care of older people - gerontologist

148

geriatrics

study of the medical problems and care of the aged - gerontology

149

glands

group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions

150

graft versus host disease

rejection if not excellent match in stem cells

151

groin

crease at the junction of the trunk with the upper and of the thigh

152

helix

shape twisted like a spiral staircase

153

hemophilia

hereditary bleeding disorder in which blood-clotting factor is missing

154

hemopoietic

related to the production of blood cells

155

hist-

tissue

156

histologist

specialist in the study of the organizaton of tissue at all levels

157

histology

study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues

158

home(o)-

constant

159

homeostasis

process though which the body maintains a constant internal environment

160

horizontal plane

a flat crosswise plane, such as the horizon

161

Huntington's disease (HD)

genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child that causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife

162

hyperplasia

enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in number of cells in the tissue

163

hypertrophy

general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ is due to an increase in the size, but not in number of cells in the tissue

164

hypochondriac

below ribs

165

hypochondriac regions

located on the left and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs

166

hypogastric region

located below stomach

167

hypoplasia

incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells

168

iatrogenic illness

unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment (severe burns from radiation therapy)

169

idi(o)-

peculiar to the individual

170

idiopathic

without known cause

171

idiopathic disorder

illness without known cause

172

ili-

hip bone

173

iliac regions

located on the left and right sides over the hip bones

174

indirect contact transmission

situation in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface

175

infectious disease

illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses

176

inferior

lowermost, below, or toward the feet (opposite to superior)

177

inguinal

relating to the groin - refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen

178

lateral

direction toward or nearer the side and away from midline (opposite to medial)

179

liquid connective tissue

blood and lymph, transport nutirents and waste products throughout the body

180

LLQ

left lower quadrant (abdomen)

181

loose connective tissue

surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels

182

lumb-

lower back

183

lumbar

part of the back between ribs and pelvis

184

lumbar region

on the left and right sides near inward curve of spine

185

LUQ

left upper quadrant (abdomen)

186

malignant

harmful

187

medial

direction toward, or nearer, the midline (opposite to lateral)

188

membrane

thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ