Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 4 Deck (188):
1

chondromalacia

abnormal softening of cartilage

2

chondroma

slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells

3

costochondritis

inflammation of cartilage that connects a rib to sternum

4

hallux valgus

abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe - bunion

5

hemarthrosis

blood within a joint

6

synovitis

inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint

7

dislocation

the total displacement of a bone from its joint

8

subluxation

the partial displacement of a bone from its joint

9

arthritis

an inflammatory condition of one or more joints

10

osteoarthritis (OA)

most commonly associated with aging (wear-and-tear arthritis)

11

spondylosis

a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function

12

gouty arthritis

a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints

13

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked

14

ankylosing spondylitis

a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae

15

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue

16

herniated disk

the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots

17

lumbago

pain of the lumbar region of the spine

18

-ago

diseased condition

19

spondylolisthesis

the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it

20

-listhesis

slipping

21

spina bifida

a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it

22

kyphosis

an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (dowager's hump)

23

lordosis

an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)

24

scoliosis

an abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine

25

craniostenosis

malformation of skull due to premature closure of cranial sutures

26

fibrous dysplasia

bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue

27

ostealgia

pain in a bone

28

osteitis

an inflammation of bone

29

osteomalacia

abnormal softening of bones in adults

30

osteomyelitis

an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone

31

osteonecrosis

the death of bone tissue due to a lack of sufficient blood supply

32

Paget's disease

a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation

33

periostitis

inflammation of periosteum

34

rickets

deficiency disease occurring in children - infantile osteomalacia

35

short stature

a condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length

36

talipes

describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bones)

37

primary bone cancer

a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone

38

secondary bone cancer

describes tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs

39

myeloma

a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow

40

osteochondroma

a benign bony projection covered with cartilage - exostosis

41

osteoporosis (OP)

a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging

42

osteopenia

thinner than average bone density in a young person - condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis

43

-penia

deficiency

44

compression fracture

occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself

45

Colles' fracture

occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands

46

osteoporotic hip fracture

usually caused by a weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall

47

fracture (Fx)

a broken bone

48

closed fracture

one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin

49

open fracture

one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin

50

comminuted fracture

one in which bone is splintered or crushed

51

greenstick fracture

one in which the bone is bent and only partially broken

52

oblique fracture

occurs at an angle across the bone

53

pathologic fracture

occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain - due to osteoporosis or cancer

54

spiral fracture

a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart

55

stress fracture

a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact

56

transverse fracture

occurs straight across the bone

57

fat embolus

can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood

58

crepitation

grating sound heard when ends of a broken bone move together

59

callus

forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break as a bone heals

60

radiograph

use of x-radiation to visualize bone fractures and other abnormalities - x-ray

61

arthroscopy

the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint

62

bone marrow biopsy

a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test

63

magnetic resonance imaging

MRI, used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints

64

bone density testing (BDT)

used to determine losses or changes in bone density

65

ultrasonic bone density testing

a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass

66

dual x-ray absorptiometry

low-exposure radiographic measurement of spine and hips to measure bone density

67

bone marrow transplant (BMT)

used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas, that affect bone marrow

68

allogenic bone marrow transplant

uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling

69

allogenic

originating with another

70

autologous bone marrow transplant

the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and then stored before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed

71

autologous

originating within an individual

72

autologous

originating within an individual

73

orthotic

a mechanical applicance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function

74

prosthesis

a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated

75

arthrodesis

surgical fusion (joining together) of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder - surgical anyylosis

76

arthrolysis

surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint - breaking down or destruction of joint

77

arthroscopic surgery

a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint

78

bursectomy

surgical removal of a bursa

79

chondroplasty

the surgical repair of damaged cartilage

80

synovectomy

surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint

81

arthroplasty

surgical placement of an artificial joint

82

total knee replacement (TKR)

procedure in which all of the parts of the knee are replaced

83

partial knee replacement (PKR)

a procedure in which only part of knee is replaced

84

total hip replacement (THR)

performed to restore a adamaged hip to full function

85

bone-conserving hip resurfacing

function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum

86

revision surgery

replacement of a worn or failed implant

87

percutaneous diskectomy

performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk

88

percutaneous vertebroplasty

performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures

89

laminectomy

the surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra

90

spinal fusion

a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together (fusing) two or more vertebrae

91

craniectomy

the surgical removal of a portion of the skull

92

craniotomy

surgical incision or opening into the skull

93

cranioplasty

the surgical repair of the skull

94

osteoclasis

the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity

95

ostectomy

the surgical removal of bone

96

osteoplasty

the surgical repair of a bone or bones

97

osteorrhaphy

the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones

98

osteotomy

a surgical incision or sectioning of a bone

99

periosteotomy

an incision through the periosteum to the bone

100

closed reduction (CR)

attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation

101

immobilization

the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast

102

traction

a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment

103

external fixation

a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external applicance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing

104

internal fixation

fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into bone to hold broken pieces in place

105

total hip arthroplasty (THA)

THA

106

total joint arthroplasty (TJA)

TJA

107

total knee arthroplasty (TKA)

TKA

108

bi-

twice, double, two

109

-cele

hernia, tumor, swelling

110

dys-

bad, difficult, or painful

111

fasci/o-

fascia, fibrous band

112

fibr/o-

fibrous tissue, fiber

113

-ia

abnormal condition, disease, plural of -ium

114

-ic

pertaining to

115

kines/o-, kinesi/o-

movement

116

my/o-, myos/o-

muscle

117

muscul/o-

muscle

118

-plegia

paralysis, stroke (pg. 100)

119

-rrhexis

rupture

120

tax/o-

coordination, order

121

ten/o-, tend/o-, tendin/o-

tendon, stretch out, extend, strain

122

ton/o-

tone, stretching, tension

123

tri-

three

124

muscle fibers

long, slender cells that make up muscles (pg. 101)

125

fascia

band of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, or separates muscles or groups of muscles (plural fasciae or fascias). (pg. 101)

126

myofascial

pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia (pg. 101)

127

tendon

narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone, not to be confused with ligaments which connect bone to bone (pg. 101)

128

skeletal muscles

attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible - voluntary / striated (pg. 102)

129

smooth muscles

located in the walls of internal organs such as digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands; move and control the flow of fluids through these structures - involuntary / unstriated / visceral (pg. 102)

130

myocardial muscles

form the muscular walls of the heart; striated but involuntary - myocardium / cardiac muscle (pg. 102)

131

cardi/o-

heart

132

muscle innervation

stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve (pg. 103)

133

neuromuscular

pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle (pg. 103)

134

-malacia

abnormal softening

135

poly-

many

136

-ceps

head

137

-algia, -dynia

pain

138

-itis

inflammation

139

-penia

deficiency

140

brady-

slow

141

-asthenia

weakness or lack of strength

142

epi-

on

143

-paresis

partial or incomplete paralysis

144

hemi-

half

145

quadr/i-

four

146

-otomy

surgical incision

147

-lysis

to set free

148

-desis

to bind or tie together

149

aponeurosis 96

sheetlike fibrous connective tissue that resembles a flattened tendon that serves as a fascia to bind muscles together or as a meas of connecting muscle to bone

150

contraction

tightening of a muscle - becomes shorter and thicker, causing the belly of the muscle to enlarge (pg. 103)

151

relaxation

muscle returns to its original form - becomes longer and thinner, and belly is no longer enlarged (pg. 103)

152

abduction

movement AWAY from midline of the body - abductor moves away (pg. 103)

153

ab-

away from

154

duct

to lead

155

-ion

action

156

adduction

movement TOWARD the midline of the body - adductor moves toward (pg. 103)

157

ad-

towards

158

flexion

decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at the joint (pg. 104)

159

flex

to bend (pg. 104)

160

extension

increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb (pg. 104)

161

ex-

out, away from

162

tens-

to stretch out

163

hyperextension

extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit (pg. 104)

164

elevation

the act of raising or lifting a body part (pg. 104)

165

depression

the act of lowering a body part

166

rotation

circular movement around an axis (pg. 104)

167

circumduction

circular movement of a limb at the far end (pg. 104)

168

supination

act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned forward or upward (pg. 105)

169

pronation

rotating the arm or leg so that the palm or sole is turned downward or backward (pg. 105)

170

dorsiflexion

movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle - opposite of plantar flexion (pg. 105)

171

plantar flexion

movement that bends the foot downward at the ankle - opposite of dorsiflexion (pg. 105)

172

origin

place where muscle begins, located nearest the midline of the body or a less movable part of the skeleton - the less movable attachment (pg. 105)

173

insertion

place where muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon, farthest point from midline - more moveable attachment (pg. 105)

174

cleid/o

collar bone (pg. 105)

175

pectoralis major

thick, fan-shaped muscle situated on the anterior chest wall (pg. 106)

176

lateralis

toward the side (pg. 107)

177

vastus lateralis

muscle toward the outer side of the leg. Extends leg at the knee; part of the quadriceps group (pg. 107)

178

medialis

toward the midline (pg. 107)

179

vastus medialis

muscle toward the midline of the leg. Extends leg at the knee; part of the quadriceps group (pg. 107)

180

oblique

slanted, at an angle, slanted alignment (pg. 107)

181

rectus

in straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body (pg. 108)

182

sphincter

ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway, named for the passage involved (pg. 108)

183

transverse

in a crosswise direction (pg. 108)

184

biceps brachii

located in the anterior upper arm, flexes the elbow, formed from two divisions (pg. 108)

185

triceps brachii

located in the posterior upper arm, flexes the elbow, formed from three divisions (pg. 108)

186

gluteus maximus

largest muscle of the buttock, maximus means great or large (pg. 108)

187

deltoid muscle

shaped like an inverted triangle or the Greek letter delta - forms the muscular cap of the shoulder (pg. 108)

188

hamstring group

located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three separate muscles--biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus--supports knee flexion and hip extension (pg. 109)