Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 5 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 5 Deck (188):
1

exercise physiologist

specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness (pg. 109)

2

neurologist

physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is loss of function (pg. 109)

3

physiatrist

specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation to restore function

4

rheumatologist

physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis, and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues

5

sports medicine physician

specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles (pg. 109)

6

fasciitis

inflammation of a fascia

7

fibromyalgia syndrome

debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, joint, diffuse or specific muscle, bone, or joint pain, plus other symptoms (pg. 109)

8

tenodynia 102

pain in a tendon

9

tendinitis

inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint, also tenonitis and tenontitis (pg. 110)

10

chronic fatigue syndrome

CFS: debilitating disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems - characterized by profound fatigue made worse by physical or mental activity (pg. 110)

11

adhesion

band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally as the result of injury or surgery (pg. 110)

12

atrophy

weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures, caused by pathology or disuse of muscle over a long period of time (pg. 110)

13

myalgia

tenderness or pain in the muscles - myodynia (pg. 110)

14

myocele

the herniation or protrusion of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it (pg. 110)

15

hernia

the protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it (pg. 110)

16

myolysis

degeneration of muscle tissue (pg. 110) Degeneration means deterioration or breaking down, Deterioration means the process of becoming worse

17

myomalacia

abnormal softening of muscle tissue

18

myorrhexis

rupture or tearing of a muscle (pg. 110)

19

polymyositis

PM: muscle disease characterized by simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body (pg. 110)

20

sarcopenia

loss of muscle mass, strength and function that comes with aging (pg. 110)

21

muscle tone

state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible (pg. 110)

22

atonic

lacking normal muscle tone or strength (pg. 110)

23

dystonia

abnormal muscle tone - causes impairment of voluntary muscle movements (pg. 110)

24

hypertonia

excessive tone of skeletal muscles

25

hypotonia

diminished tone of skeletal muscles (pg. 110)

26

myotonia

neuromuscular disorder characterized by slow relaxation of the muscles after voluntary contraction

27

ataxia

the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement - shaky and unsteady movement caused by abnormal activity in the cerebellum (pg. 110)

28

dystaxia

mild form of ataxia - also called partial ataxia

29

contracture

the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments or skin that occurs when connective tissues are replaced by nonelastic fibrous tissues - caused by scarring or lack of use (pg. 110)

30

intermittent claudication (IC)

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise - relieved by rest - associated with peripheral vascular disease (pg. 111)

31

spasm

sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles, also known as charley horse (pg. 111)

32

cramp

localized muscle spasm named for its cause, such as a heat cramp or writer's cramp (pg. 111)

33

spasmodic torticollis

a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side - wryneck (tortus, twisted - collum, neck) (pg. 111)

34

bradykinesia

extreme slowness in movement - symptom of Parkinson's disease (pg. 111)

35

dyskinesia

distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm (pg. 111)

36

hyperkinesia

abnormally increased muscle function or activity - hyperactivity (pg. 110)

37

hypokinesia

abnormally decreased muscle function or activity

38

myoclonus (my-oh-KLOH-nus)

sudden involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles (pg. 111)

39

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of limbs that can occur normally when one is falling asleep (pg. 111)

40

singultus

myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the hiccup sound with each spasm (pg. 111)

41

myasthenia gravis (MG)

chronic autoimmune disease that affects neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles (pg. 111)

42

muscular dystrophy (MD)

group of >30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement without affecting the nervous system - no specific treatment to stop or reverse disease (pg. 111)

43

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

most common form of MD - primarily affects boys age 3-5 - progresses rapidly (pg. 111)

44

Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)

very similar to Duchenne, but less severe (pg. 111)

45

repetitive stress disorders

variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation/sports - involve muscles, tendons, nerves, and joints (pg. 111)

46

compartment syndrome

involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles (pg. 111)

47

overuse injuries

minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal - can include stress fractures (pg. 111)

48

overuse tendinitis

inflammation of tendons by excessive or unusual use of a joint (pg. 112)

49

myofascial pain syndrome

chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body - produces local and referred muscle pain (pg. 112)

50

impingement syndrome

occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught between the bones within the shoulder joint - hurts when you raise your arms above your head (pg. 112)

51

rotator cuff tendinitis

inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff (pg. 112)

52

ruptured rotator cuff

develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or the overuse continues (pg. 112)

53

carpal tunnel syndrome

tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are overused, inflamed and swollen (pg. 112)

54

carpal tunnel release

surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of carpal ligament to relieve pressure on tendons and nerves (pg. 112)

55

ganglion cyst

harmless, fluid-filled swelling on outer surface of wrist - caused by repeated minor injuries - painless, no treatment required (pg. 113)

56

epicondylitis

inflammation of tissues surrounding the elbow (condyle refers to the round prominence at the end of the bone) (pg. 113)

57

heel spur

calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near attachment to calcaneus (heel) bone (pg. 113)

58

plantar fasciitis

inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot - causes foot or heel pain when walking or running (pg. 113)

59

sprain

injury to a joint involving stretched (wrenched) or torn LIGAMENTS (pg. 113)

60

strain

injury to the body of a MUSCLE or attachment of a TENDON - associated with overuse injuries (pg. 113)

61

shin splint

muscle tearing away from the tibia (shinbone) - can develop in anterolateral (front and side) or posteromedial (back and middle) muscles of the lower leg (pg. 113)

62

hamstring injury

a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee (pg. 114)

63

achilles tendinitis

painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress on tendon (pg. 114)

64

iliotibial band syndrome

ITBS: band runs from the hip bone, diagonally across the leg to the tibia. ITBS is caused by this band rubbing against bone, often by the knee (pg. 114)

65

spinal cord injury (SCI)

paralysis, determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury - occurs when a vertebra is broken and piece presses into spinal cord, or if vertebra is pushed/pulled out of alignment (pg. 114)

66

paralysis

loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply (pg. 114)

67

myoparesis

weakness or slight muscular paralysis (pg. 115)

68

hemiparesis

slight paralysis affecting only one side of the body (pg. 115)

69

hemiplegia

total paralysis affecting only one side of the body - associated with stroke or brain damage (pg. 115)

70

paraplegia

paralysis of both legs and lower part of the body (pg. 115)

71

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremities (pg. 115)

72

cardioplegia

paralysis of heart muscle caused by direct blow or trauma, or induced by drugs - cardiac arrest (pg. 115)

73

deep tendon reflexes (DTR)

tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon - reflex: involuntary response to a stimulus (pg. 115)

74

range of motion testing (ROM)

diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength (pg. 115)

75

electromyography (EMG)

diagnostic test that measures electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation (pg. 116)

76

electroneuromyography 111

nerve conduction studies - diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by electro- stimulation

77

muscle biopsy

removal of a plug of tissue for examination (pg. 116)

78

antispasmodic

suppresses smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder (pg. 116)

79

skeletal muscle relaxant

relaxes certain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries - act on the central nervous system (pg. 116)

80

neuromuscular blocker

drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles neuromuscular blocking agent (pg. 116)

81

ergonomics

study of human factors that affect design and operations of tools and work environment (pg. 116)

82

myofascial release

specialized soft tissue manipulation technique to ease pain of fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, and carpal tunnel syndrome (pg. 116)

83

occupational therapy

OT: activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, grooming, eating, etc) (pg. 116)

84

physical therapy

PT: treatment to prevent disability or restore function through use of exercise, heat, massage, and other methods to improve circulation, flexibility, and muscle strength

85

therapeutic ultrasound

utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue and increasing blood flow (pg. 117)

86

RICE

Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation - most common first aid treatment of muscular injuries (pg. 117)

87

fasciotomy

surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure (pg. 117)

88

fascioplasty

surgical repair of fascia (pg. 117)

89

tenodesis

surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to the bone (pg. 117)

90

tenolysis

the release of a tendon from adhesions (pg. 117)

91

tenectomy

surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath

92

tenoplasty

surgical repair of a tendon

93

tenorrhaphy

surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon (pg. 117)

94

tenotomy

surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle

95

myectomy

surgical excision of a portion of a muscle

96

myoplasty

surgical repair of a muscle

97

myorrhaphy

surgical suturing of a muscle wound (pg. 117)

98

myotomy

surgical incision into a muscle (pg. 117)

99

-lysis

destruction or breaking down

100

frontalis

muscle in forehead, raises and lowers the eyebrows, also occipitofrontalis (pg. 109)

101

temporalis

muscle moves the lower jaw up and back to close the mouth (pg. 109)

102

masseter

muscle moves the lower jaw up to close the mouth when chewing, one of the strongest in the body (pg. 109)

103

external oblique muscles

flex and rotate the vertebral column; flex the torso and compress the abdomen (pg. 109)

104

internal oblique muscles

flex the spine, support the abdominal contents, help breathe, and rotate the spine (pg. 109)

105

rectus abdominis

helps flex the trunk, assists in breathing, and supports the spine (pg. 109)

106

transverse abdominis

located on the side of the abdomen, engaged when coughing or laughing (pg. 109)

107

trapezius muscle

moves the head and shoulder blade (pg. 109)

108

rectus femoris

extends the leg at the knee (pg. 109)

109

quadriceps femoris

made up of four muscles, including the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, which flex and extend the leg at the knee (pg. 109)

110

gastrocnemius

calf muscle that flexes the knee and bends the foot downwoard (pg. 109)

111

tenosynovitis

inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon (pg. 109)

112

synov

synovial membrane (pg. 109)

113

sarc/o

flesh

114

ACE inhibitor

blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension

115

anemia

a lower than normal number of erythrocytes in the blood

116

aneurysm

a localized weak spot, or balloon-like enlargement, of the wall of an artery

117

aneurysmectomy

the surgical removal of an aneurysm

118

aneurysmorrhaphy

the surgical suturing of an aneurysm

119

angiitis

the inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel

120

angina

a condition of episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium

121

angiography

a radiographic study of the blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium

122

angiostenosis

the abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel

123

antiarrhythmic

a medication administered to control irregularities of the heartbeat

124

anticoagulant

slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming

125

antihypertensive

a medication administered to lower blood pressure

126

aorta

the largest blood vessel in the body; the main trunk of the arterial system and begins from the left ventricle of the heart

127

aortic semilunar valve

located between the left ventricle and the aorta

128

aplastic anemia

characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

129

arrhythmia

describes an abnormality, or the loss of the normal rhythm, of the heart

130

arteriectomy

the surgical removal of part of an artery

131

arteries

large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of the body

132

angioplasty

a procedure in which a small balloon is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen

133

arterioles

the smaller, thinner branches of arteries that carry blood to the capillaries

134

arteriosclerosis

any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls

135

artificial pacemaker

used primarily as treatment for bradycardia or atrial fibrillation

136

aspirin

recommended to reduce the risk of a heart attack or stroke by slightly reducing the ability of the blood to clot

137

atherectomy

the surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery

138

atheroma

a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

139

atherosclerosis

hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries

140

atria

the two upper chambers of the heart

141

atrial fibrillation

occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall

142

atrioventicular node

located on the floor of the right atrium near the interatrial septum

143

automated external defibrillator

designed for use by nonprofessionals in emergency situations when defibrillation is required

144

bacterial endocarditis

an inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream

145

basophils

the least common type of WBC

146

beta-blocker

reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat

147

blood

the fluid tissue in the body

148

blood dyscrasia

any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood

149

blood gases

gases that are normally dissolved in the liquid portion of blood

150

blood pressure

the measurement of the amount of systolic and diastolic pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries

151

blood types

classified according to the presence, or absence, of certain antigens; four major blood types are A, AB, B, and O

152

bradycardia

an abnormally slow resting heart rate

153

bundle of His (HISS)

a group of fibers located within the interventricular septum

154

calcium channel blocker agents

cause the heart and blood vessels to relax by decreasing the movement of calcium into the cells of these structures

155

capillaries

the smallest blood vessels in the body

156

cardiac arrest

an event in which the heart abruptly stops or develops a very abnormal arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood

157

cardiac catheterization

a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is passed into a vein or artery and then guided into the heart

158

cardiologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the heart

159

cardiomegaly

the abnormal enlargement of the heart

160

cardiomyopathy

the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle

161

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

an emergency procedure for life support consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac compression

162

cardiovascular

pertaining to the heart and blood vessels

163

cardiovascular system

consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood

164

carditis

an inflammation of the heart

165

carotid arteries

the major arteries that carry blood upward to the head

166

carotid endarterectomy

the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain

167

cholesterol

a fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body

168

cholesterol-lowering drugs

used to combat hyperlipidemia by reducing the undesirable cholesterol levels in the blood

169

chronic venous insufficiency

a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves

170

congenital heart defects

structural abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally before birth

171

coronary arteries

supply oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium

172

coronary artery bypass graft

a piece of vein from the leg or chest is implanted on the heart to replace a blocked coronary artery and to improve the flow of blood to the heart (AKA bypass surgery)

173

coronary artery disease

atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle

174

coronary thrombosis

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

175

Coumadin

an anticoagulant administered to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger

176

deep vein thrombosis

the condition of having a thrombus attached to the wall of a deep vein

177

defibrillation

the use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm

178

diastolic pressure

occurs when the ventricles are relaxed; the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery

179

digital subtraction angiography

combines angiography with computerized components to clarify the view of the area of interest by removing the soft tissue and bones from the images

180

digitalis

strengthens the contraction of the heart muscle, slows the heart rate, and helps eliminate fluid from body tissues

181

diuretic

administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium and water

182

duplex ultrasound

a diagnostic procedure to image the structures of the blood vessels and the flow of blood through these vessels

183

electrocardiogram

a record of the electrical activity of the myocardium

184

electrodardiography

the noninvasive process of recording the electrical activity of the myocardium

185

embolism

the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

186

embolus

a foreign object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor that is circulating in the blood

187

endocarditis

an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

188

endocardium

the inner lining of the heart