Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 6 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 6 Deck (188):
1

eosinophils

destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in allergic reactions

2

epicardium

the external layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium

3

erythrocytes

mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow (red blood cells - RBC)

4

fibrinogen

clotting protein found in the plasma

5

heart

a hollow, muscular organ located between the lungs

6

heart failure

a chronic condition in which the heart is unable to pump out all of the blood that it receives

7

heart murmur

an abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels

8

hemangioma

a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels

9

hematologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissues

10

hemochromatosis

a genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron

11

hemoglobin

the iron-containing pigment of the erythrocytes

12

hemolytic anemia

characterized by inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen

13

hemorrhage

the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time

14

hemostasis

to stop or control bleeding

15

Holter monitor

a portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24-hour period

16

hyperlipidemia

the general term used to describe elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood

17

hypertension

the elevation of arterial blood pressure to a level that is likely to cause damage to the cardiovascular system

18

hypoperfusion

a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part

19

hypotension

lower than normal arterial blood pressure

20

implantable cardioverter defibrillator

a double action pacemaker

21

iron-deficiency anemia

the most common form of anemia

22

ischemia

a condition in which there is an insufficient oxygen supply due to a restricted blood flow to a part of the body

23

ischemic heart disease

a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

24

left atrium

receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins

25

left ventricle

receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium

26

leukemia

a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes found in blood forming tissues, other organs, and in the circulating blood

27

leukocytes

the blood cells involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances (white blood cells - WBC)

28

leukopenia

describes any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal

29

lymphocytes

identify foreign substances and germs in the body and produce antibodies that specifically target them

30

megaloblastic anemia

a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal

31

minimally invasive coronary artery bypass

procedure performed with the aid of a fiber optic camera through small openings between the ribs

32

mitral valve

located between the left atrium and left ventricle

33

monocytes

provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms

34

myelodysplastic syndrome

a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow

35

myocardial infarction

the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup (heart attack)

36

myocarditis

an inflammation of the myocardium

37

myocardium

the middle and thickest of the heart's three layers and consists of specialized cardiac muscle tissue

38

neutrophils

the most common type of WBC

39

nitroglycerin

a vasodilator that is prescribed to prevent or relieve the pain of angina by dilating the blood vessels to the heart

40

orthostatic hypotension

low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up

41

palpitation

a pounding or racing heart with or without irregularity in rhythm

42

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT)

an episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium

43

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

a procedure in which a small balloon on the end of a catheter is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen (AKA angioplasty)

44

pericarditis

an inflammation of the pericardium that causes an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac

45

pericardium

the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart

46

peripheral arterial occlusive disease

an example of a peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis

47

peripheral vascular disease

refers to disorders of the blood vessels located outside the heart and brain

48

pernicious anemia

caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor that helps the body absorb vitamin B-12 from the gastrointestinal tract

49

phlebitis

the inflammation of a vein

50

phlebography

a radiographic test that provides an image of the leg veins after a contrast dye is injected

51

plaque

a fatty deposit that is similar to the buildup of rust inside a pipe

52

plasma

a straw-colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones, and waste products

53

plasmapheresis

the removal of whole blood from the body and separation of the blood's cellular elements

54

polyarteritis

a form of angiitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time

55

polycythemia

an abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by the bone marrow

56

prothrombin

clotting protein found in the plasma

57

pulmonary arteries

carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs

58

pulmonary circulation

the flow of blood only between the heart and lungs

59

pulmonary semilunar valve

located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

60

pulmonary veins

carry the oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart

61

pulse

the rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart

62

Purkinje fibers

specialized conductive fibers located within the walls of the ventricles

63

Raynaud's phenomenon

a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress

64

restenosis

describes the condition when an artery that has been opened by angioplasty closes again

65

Rh factor

refers to the presence, or absence of the Rh antigen on red blood cells

66

right atrium

receives oxygen-poor blood from all tissues, except the lungs, through the superior and inferior venae cavae

67

right ventricle

pumps the oxygen-poor blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary artery, which carries it to the lungs

68

septicemia

a systemic condition caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins via the circulating blood

69

serum

plasma fluid after the blood cells and the clotting proteins have been removed

70

sickle cell anemia

a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape

71

sinoatrial node

located in the posterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava

72

stent

a wire-mesh tube that is commonly placed after the artery has been opened

73

stress test

performed to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress

74

sudden cardiac death

results if treatment is not provided within a few minutes

75

systemic circulation

includes the flow of blood to all parts of the body except the lungs

76

systolic pressure

occurs when the ventricles contract; the highest pressure against the walls of an artery

77

tachycardia

an abnormally rapid resting heart rate

78

thalassemia

an inherited blood disorder that causes mild or severe anemia due to reduced hemoglobin and few red blood cells than normal

79

thallium stress test

performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise

80

thrombocytes

the smallest formed elements of the blood (platelets)

81

thrombocytopenia

a condition in which there is an abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood

82

thrombocytosis

an abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the circulating blood

83

thrombolytic

dissolves or causes a thrombus to break up

84

thrombosis

the abnormal condition of having a thrombus

85

thrombotic occlusion

the blocking of an artery by a thrombus

86

thrombus

a blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein

87

tissue plasminogen activator

a thrombolytic that is administered to some patients having a heart attack or stroke

88

transfusion reaction

a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match

89

tricuspid valve

controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle

90

valvoplasty

the surgical repair or replacement of a heart valve

91

valvular prolapse

the abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely

92

valvular stenosis

a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart

93

valvulitis

an inflammation of a heart valve

94

varicose veins

abnormally swollen veins, usually occurring in the superficial veins of the legs

95

vascular surgeon

a physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels

96

vasoconstrictor

causes blood vessels to narrow

97

vasodilator

causes blood vessels to expand

98

veins

form a low pressure collecting system to return oxygen-poor blood to the heart

99

venae cavae

the two largest veins in the body; return blood into the heart

100

ventricles

the two lower chambers of the heart

101

ventricular fibrillation

the rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles

102

ventricular tachycardia

a very rapid heartbeat that begins within the ventricles

103

venules

the smallest veins that join to form the larger veins

104

Angi/o

Blood vessel

105

Aort/o

Aorta

106

Arteri/o

Artery

107

Ather/o

Plague

108

Brady-

Slow

109

Cardi/o

Heart

110

-crasia

Mixture or blending

111

-emia

Blood or blood condition

112

Erythr/o

Red

113

Hem/o

Blood

114

Leuk/o

White

115

Phleb/o

Vein

116

Tachy

Fast, rapid

117

Thromb/o

Clot

118

Ven/o

Vein

119

anti

against

120

carcin/o

cancer

121

immun/o

protected

122

lymph/o

Lymph; the fluid that removes cellular waste products, pathogens, and dead blood cells from the tissues.

123

lymphaden/o

lyphaden

124

lymphangi/o

Lymphatic Vessels and Ducts; Returns lymph from the tissue to the circulatory system.

125

megaly

abnormal enlargement

126

rrhagia

bleeding

127

plasm

formation

128

sarc/o

flesh

129

splen/o

Spleen; Filters foreign materials from the blood. Maintains the appropriate balance between cells and plasma in the blood. Destryos worn-out blood cells, releases hemoglobin, acts as a blood reservoir, and stores platelets.

130

tic

pertaining to

131

tox/o

poison

132

tonsill/o, adenoid/o

Tonsils and Adenoids; Protect the entry into the respiratory system.

133

myel/o

Bone Marrow; Produces blood cells. (also refers to the spinal cord.)

134

lymphocyt/o

Lymphocytes; The specialized white blood cells that play an important role in immune reactions.

135

thym/o

Thymus; Secretes the endocrine thymosin that aids in the maturation of T lymphocytes for use by the immune system.

136

immuno/o

Immune System; Defends the body against harmful substances, such as pathogenic microorganisms, allergens, toxins and malignant cells.

137

onc

tumor

138

cervic

neck

139

axill

ary

140

inguin

groin

141

hem/o

blood

142

lytic

to destroy

143

lymphaden

lymph node

144

pathy

disease

145

oma

tumor

146

edema

swelling

147

cytes

cells

148

macro

large

149

phage

a cell that eats

150

phag/o

to eat or swallow

151

therapy

treatment

152

bio

life

153

cide

causing death

154

static

causing control

155

neo

new or strange

156

my

muscle

157

angi/o

vessel

158

genesis

reproduction

159

meta

beyond

160

stasis

stopping

161

aden/o

gland

162

oste/o

bone

163

mammo/o

breast

164

graphy

the process of producing a picture or record

165

bi

pertaining to life

166

opsy

view of

167

mast

breast

168

ectomy

surgical removal

169

plast

growth or formation

170

brachy

short

171

tele

distant

172

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

the most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection

173

Allergen

a substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual

174

Anaphylaxis

a severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly, and without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.

175

Antibiotic

medications that are capable of inhibiting growth, or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms.

176

Antibody

a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen

177

Antifungal

an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi

178

Antigen

any substanc that the body regards as being foreign, and includes viruses, bacteria, toxins, and transplanted tissues.

179

antigen-antibody reaction

a reaction that labels a potentially dangerous antigen so that it can be recognized, and destroyed, by other cells of the immune system.

180

autoimmune disorder

any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues.

181

bacilli

rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria

182

bacteria

one-celled microscopic organisms,some of which are pathogenic

183

carcinoma

a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue

184

carcinoma in situ

describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues

185

complement

a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form and are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria

186

cytomegalovirus

a member of the herpes virus family that cause a variety of diseases

187

cytotoxic drug

a medication that kills or damages cells

188

ductal carcinoma in situ

breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the mild duct