Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 8 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 8 Deck (188):
1

tuberculosis

an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually attacks the lungs

2

upper respiratory infections

among the terms used to describe the common cold; can be caused by any one of 200 different viruses

3

upper respiratory tract

consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea

4

ventilator

a mechanical device for artificial ventilation of the lungs that is used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function

5

video-assisted thoracic surgery

the use of a video-assisted thoracoscope to view the inside of the chest cavity through very small incisions

6

viral pneumonia

caused by several different types of viruses and accounts for approximately half of all pneumonias

7

visceral pleura

the inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung

8

abdominal computed tomography (CT)

a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen

9

abdominal ultrasound

a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves

10

absorption

the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body

11

acid reducers

decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach

12

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)

caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth

13

aerophagia

the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach

14

amebic dysentery

an intestinal disorder caused by a parasite

15

anabolism

the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients

16

anal fissure

a small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that cau cause severe pain during a bowel movement

17

anastomosis

a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures

18

anorexia

the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease

19

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance

20

anoscoopy

the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum

21

antacids

neutralize the acids in the stomach

22

antiemetic

a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting

23

anus

the lower opening of the digestive tract

24

aphthous ulcers

grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers

25

ascending colon

travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver

26

ascites

an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

27

bariatric surgery

performed to treat morbid obesity to restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested

28

bariatrics

the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases

29

bile

a digestive juice secreted by the liver

30

biliary tree

provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine

31

bilirubin

the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin

32

body mass index (BMI)

a number that shows body weight adjusted for height

33

bolus

a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed

34

borborygmus

the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine

35

botulism

food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum

36

bowel incontinence

the inability to control the excretion of feces

37

bruxism

the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress

38

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting

39

cachexia

a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS

40

capsule endoscopy

a tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows

41

catabolism

the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide

42

cecum

a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen

43

cheilosis

a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth

44

cholangiography

a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium

45

cholangitis

an acute infection of the bile duct

46

cholecystalgia

pain in the gallbladder

47

cholecystectomy

the surgical removal of the gallbladder

48

cholecystic

pertaining to the gallbladder

49

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones

50

choledocholithotomy

an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones

51

cholelithiasis

the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

52

cholera

severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera

53

chyme

the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into the small intestine

54

cirrhosis

a progressive degenerative disease of the liver

55

cleft lip

a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development

56

cleft palate

the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus

57

colectomy

the surgical removal of all, or part of, the colon

58

colon

the longest portion of the large intestine

59

colonoscopy

the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum

60

colorectal carcinoma

colon cancer

61

colostomy

the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface

62

constipation

having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week

63

Crohn's disease

a chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon

64

defecation

the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine

65

dehydration

a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance

66

dental calculus

dental plaque that has calcified (hardened) on the teeth

67

dental caries

an infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth; also known as tooth decay or a cavity

68

dental plaque

forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth

69

dental prophylaxis

the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus

70

dentist

specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity

71

dentition

refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws

72

descending colon

travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon

73

diarrhea

an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration

74

digestion

the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use

75

diverticulectomy

the surgical removal of a diverticulum

76

diverticulitis

the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon

77

diverticulosis

the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon

78

duodenum

the first portion of the small intestine; extends from the pylorus to the jejunum

79

dyspepsia

pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion

80

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

81

edentulous

without teeth

82

emesis

the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting

83

endoscope

an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures

84

enema

the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity

85

enteritis

an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens

86

epiglottis

a lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea (windpipe) to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing

87

eructation

the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach

88

esophageal varices

enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus

89

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

an endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum

90

esophagus

the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach

91

feces

solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus

92

flatulence

the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum

93

gallbladder

a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver

94

gallstone

a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components

95

gastrectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach

96

gastritis

a common inflammation of the stomach lining

97

gastroduodenostomy

the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum

98

gastroenteritis

an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines

99

gastroenterologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines

100

gastroesophageal reflux disease

the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus

101

gastrointestinal tract

the structures of the digestive system

102

gastrorrhea

the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucous in the stomach

103

gastrostomy tube

a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach

104

gingiva

the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches, and lines the cheeks; also known as the gums

105

gingivectomy

the surgical removal or diseased gingival tissue

106

gingivitis

the earliest stage of periodontal disease, and the inflammation affects only the gums

107

halitosis

an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders; also known as bad breath

108

hard palate

the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane

109

hematemesis

vomiting blood

110

hemoccult test

a lab test for hidden blood in the stools

111

hemorrhoidectomy

the surgical removal of hemorrhoids

112

hemorrhoids

occur when a cluster of veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening

113

hepatectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of the liver

114

hepatitis

an inflammation of the liver

115

hepatomegaly

the abnormal enlargement of the liver

116

hepatorrhaphy

surgical suturing of the liver

117

herpes labialis

blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters

118

hiatal hernia

a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm

119

hyperemesis

extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration

120

ileectomy

the surgical removal of the ileum

121

ileocecal sphincter

the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine

122

ileostomy

the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall

123

ileum

the last and longest portion of the small intestine; extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine

124

ileus

the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine

125

inflammatory bowel disease

the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines

126

inguinal hernia

the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin

127

internist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems

128

intestinal obstruction

the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intesting caused by a physical obstruction

129

intussusceptions

the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part

130

irritable bowel syndrome

a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea

131

jaundice

a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes

132

jejunum

the middle portion of the small intestine; extends from the duodenum to the ileum

133

large intestine

extends from the small end of the small intestine to the anus

134

laxatives

medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements

135

lips

form the opening to the oral cavity

136

liver

a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen

137

liver transplant

an option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer

138

lower esophageal sphincter

a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach

139

malabsorption

a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it

140

malnutrition

a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb, and distribute these nutrients

141

malocclusion

any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth

142

mastication

chewing; breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva, and prepares it to be swallowed

143

maxillofacial surgery

specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries

144

melena

the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools

145

metabolism

includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients

146

morbid obesity

the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity

147

nasogastric intubation

the placementof a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach

148

nausea

the urge to vomit

149

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

describes a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol

150

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation

151

obesity

an excessive accumulation of fat in the body

152

occlusion

describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth

153

oral cavity

contains the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium

154

oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea

155

oral thrush

develops when the fungus Candida albicans grows out of control

156

orthodontist

a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures

157

ostomy

a surgical procedure to create an articial opening between an organ and the body surface

158

palate

forms the roof of the mouth

159

palatoplasty

surgical repair of a cleft lip and/or palate

160

pancreas

a soft, 6 inch long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach

161

papillae

small bumps found on the upper surface of the tongue

162

peptic ulcers

sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system

163

periodontal disease

an inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth

164

periodontist

a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth

165

periodontium

consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth

166

peristalsis

a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction

167

permanent dentition

consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime

168

pharynx

the common passageway for both respiration and digestion

169

pica

an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay that lasts for at least 1 month

170

primary dentition

consists of 20 teeth that are normally lost during childhood and are replaced by the permanent teeth

171

proctectomy

the surgical removal of the rectum

172

proctologist

a physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus

173

proctopexy

the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ

174

proctoplasty

the surgical repair of the rectum

175

pyloric sphincter

the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine

176

pylorus

the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine

177

pyrosis

the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus; also known as heartburn

178

rectum

the widest division of the large intestine

179

regurgitation

the return of swallowed food into the mouth

180

rugae

the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach

181

saliva

a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing

182

salivary glands

secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth

183

salmonellosis

an infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces

184

sigmoid colon

an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below

185

sigmoidoscopy

the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon

186

small intestine

a coiled organ up to 20 feet in length that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine

187

soft palate

the flexible posterior portion of the palate

188

steatosis

characterized by accumulations of fat within the liver that usually does not cause liver damage