Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 11 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 11 Deck (188):
1

alopecia

is the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp.

2

blepharoplasty

Also known as a lid lift. The surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing sagging skin.

3

bulla

a large blister more than 0.5 in diameter.

4

capillary hemangioma

a soft, raised, pink or red vascular birthmark.

5

carbuncle

a cluster of connected furuncles (boils).

6

cellulitis

an acute rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues, that is characterized by swelling and warmth.

7

chloasma

a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face.

8

cicatrix

a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound.

9

comedo

a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle

10

debridement

removal or dirt or foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection.

11

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin.

12

diaphoresis

is profuse sweating.

13

dysplastic nevi

atypical moles that can develop into skin cancer.

14

ecchymosis

a bruise, a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin.

15

eczema

form of persistent or recurring dermatitis usually characterized by redness, itching, and dryness

16

erythema

redness of the skin due to capillary dilation

17

erythroderma

abnormal redness of the entire skin surface.

18

exanthem

a widespread rash, usually in children

19

exfoliative dermatitis

a condition in which there is widespread scaling of the skin.

20

folliculitis

an inflammation of the hair follicles.

21

furuncles

also known as boils, large tender, swollen areas caused by staphylococcal infection around the hair follicle or sebaceous glands

22

granuloma

a general term used to describe a small, knot like swelling of granulation tissue in the epidermis.

23

hematoma

a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues.

24

hirsutism

the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern.

25

ichthyosis

a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin.

26

impetigo

a highly contagious bacterial skin infection that occurs in children.

27

keloid

an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the original incision.

28

keratosis

any skin growth, such as a wart or callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin.

29

koilonychia

a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon.

30

lipedema

chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in tissues just under the skin of the hips and legs.

31

lipoma

a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer

32

macule

a discolored flat spot that is less than 1cm in diameter. freckles or flat moles.

33

malignant melanoma

a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes. the most serious type of skin cancer.

34

necrotizing fasciitis

a severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria.

35

onychocryptosis

ingrown toenail, the edges of the toenail curve inward and cut into the skin.

36

onychomycosis

a fungal infection of the nail.

37

papilloma

a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as in the bladder.

38

papule

a small, raised red lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter and does not contain pus. small pimples and insect bites.

39

paronychia

an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail.

40

pediculosis

an infestation with lice.

41

petechiae

very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2mm in diameter.

42

pruritus

itching associated with most forms of dermatitis.

43

psoriasis

a common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back or buttocks.

44

purpura

the apperance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin.

45

purulent

means producing or containing pus

46

rhytidectomy

also known as a face lift. the surgical removal of excess skin and fat from the face to eliminate wrinkles.

47

rosacea

also known as adult acne. tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels.

48

scabies

a skin infestation of itch mites.

49

scleroderma

autoimmune disorder in which connective tissues become thickened and hardened

50

seborrhea

is overactivity of the sebaceous glands that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum

51

squamous cell carcinoma

orginates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium.

52

systemic lupus erythematosus

an autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk. also attacks the connective tissue in other body systems, especially in the joints.

53

tinea

a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails. also known as ringworm.

54

urticaria

also known as hives, itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction.

55

verrucae

small, hard skin lesions caused by hpv. (warts)

56

vitiligo

a skin condition resulting from destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes.

57

wheal

a small bump that itches. (welts)

58

xeroderma

also known as xerosis, excessively dry skin

59

skin

forms the protective outer covering to the external organs

60

sebaceous glands

secrete sebumm (oil) that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin. Closely associated with hair follicles, located in the dermis layer.

61

sweat glands

help regulate the body temperature and water content by secreting sweat

62

hair

controls the lost of body heat

63

nails

protects the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger

64

epidermis

the outermost layer of the skin, is made up of several specialized epithelial tissues.

65

epithelial tissues

form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body.

66

squamous epithelial tissue

forms the upper layer of the epidermis

67

basal layer

the lowest layer of the epidermis

68

keratin

a fibrous, water-repellent protein

69

melanocytes

special cells that are found in the basal cell layer.

70

melanin

the pigment that determines the color of the skin.

71

dermis

the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis.

72

sensory nerve ending

sensory receptors for stimuli such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure

73

collagen

tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin, and also bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.

74

mast cells

found in the connective tissue of the dermis respond to injury, infection, or allergy

75

heparin

an anticoagulant that is released in response to an injury

76

histamine

released in response to allergens

77

subcutaneous layer

located just below the layers of the skin and connects the skin to surface muscles.

78

adipose tissue

layer made up of loose connective tissue.

79

lipocytes

predominant in the subcutaneous layer where they manufacture and store large quantities of fat

80

sebum

is an oily substance that is released through ducts opening into the hair follicles

81

mammary glands

milk producing modified sebaceous glands

82

hidrosis

the production and excretion of perspiration

83

arrector pili

are tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause hair to stand erect

84

hair follicles

are sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers

85

unguis

commonly known as the fingernail or toenail

86

lunula

the pale half-moon shaped region at every nail root

87

cuticle

a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root

88

nail root

fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin.

89

dermatologist

specializes in treatment of the skin

90

plastic surgeon

specializes in physical restoration and reconstruction of body structures

91

acne vulgaris

commonly known as acne. a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by sebum around the hair shaft

92

sebaceous cyst

a closed sac associated with a sebaceous gland that is found under the skin.

93

seborrheic dermatitis

an inflammation sometimes resulting from seborrhea that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of the skin or scalp

94

seborrheic keratosis

a benign skin growth that has a waxy or pasted on look.

95

anhidrosis

the abnormal conditon of lacking sweat in response to heat.

96

heat rash

an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells.

97

hyperhidrosis

condition of excessive sweating in one area or over the whole body.

98

sleep hyperhidrosis

the occurrence of hyperhidrosis during sleep.

99

trichomycosis axillaris

is superficial bacterial infection of the hair shafts in areas with extensive sweat glands, such as the armpits.

100

alopecia areata

causes well defined bald areas on the scalp or elsewhere on the body. usually occurs in childhood

101

alopecia totalis

uncommon caused by total loss of hair on the scalp.

102

alopecia universalis

total loss of hair on all parts of the body.

103

clubbing

abnormal curving of the nails accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips

104

onychia

an inflammation of the matrix of the nail that often results in the loss of the nail.

105

onychophagia

nail biting or nail eating

106

contusion

an injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin and shows discoloration and pain.

107

nodule

a solid, raised skin lesion that is larger that 0.5 cm in diameter.

108

plaque

a scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules. lesions from psoriasis.

109

scales

are flakes or dry patches made up of excess ded epidermal cells.

110

abscess

a closed pocket containing pus that is caused by bacterial infection

111

exudate

a fluid such as pus that leaks from a wound.

112

cyst

an abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or semisolid material

113

pustule

a small cicumscribed lesion containing pus, also known as a pimple.

114

vesicle

a small blister, containing watery fluid

115

abrasion

an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away.

116

fissure

a groove or crack-like break in the skin. also describe folds in the brain.

117

laceration

a torn or jagged wound

118

pressure sore

also known as a bedsore, an open ulcerated wound that is caused by prolonged pressure on an area of skin.

119

puncture wound

a deep hole made by a sharp object.

120

ulcer

an open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges.

121

pigmented birthmarks

also known as moles

122

vascular birthmarks

caused by blood vessels close to the skin surface.

123

port-wine stain

a flat vascular birthmark made up of dilated blood capillaries, creating a large, reddish purple discoloration on the face or neck.

124

dermatosis

general term used to denote skin lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation.

125

rhinophyma

also known as a bulbous nose, usually occurs in older men. overgrowth of tissues of the nose and is associated with advanced rosacea.

126

gangrene

tissue death. caused by a loss of circulation to the affected tissues.

127

pyoderma

any acute inflammatory pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo.

128

mycosis

abnormal condition or disease caused by a fungus.

129

callus

thickening part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing.

130

granulation tissue

a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound.

131

nevus

a small, dark, skin growth that develops from melanocytes in the skin.

132

polyp

a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane.

133

skin tags

are small, flesh colored or light-brown polyps that hang from the body by fine stalks.

134

skin cancer

a harmful, malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes, including repeated severe sunburns or long-term exposure to the sun.

135

basal cell carcinoma

a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. lesions that occur mainly on the face or neck and tend to bleed easily.

136

burn

an injury to the body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation.

137

biopsy

the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis.

138

exfoliative cytology

a technique in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a mircoscope.

139

sunscreen

blocks out the harmful ultra-violet B rays.

140

cauterization

destruction of tissue by burning

141

chemabrasion

also known as a chemical peel, the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring, fine wrinkling, and keratoses.

142

cryosurgery

the destruction or elmination of abnormal tissue cells, such as warts or tumors through the application of extreme cold by using liquid nitrogen.

143

curettage

the removal of material from the surface by scraping.

144

dermabrasion

a from of abrasion involving the use of revolving wire brush or sandpaper.

145

electrodesiccation

a surgical technique in which tissue is destroyed using an electric spark

146

incision

a cut made with a surgical instrument.

147

Moh's sugery

a technique used to treat various types of skin cancer.

148

lipectomy

the surgical removal of fat from beneath the skin to improve physical appearance.

149

liposuction

the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction.

150

sclerotherapy

the treatment of spider veins by injecting a saline solution into the vein.

151

acr/o

"extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point."

152

adren/o

adrenal glands.

153

crin/o

secrete.

154

-dipsia

thirst.

155

glyc/o

"glucose, sugar."

156

gonad/o

gonad, sex glands.

157

-ism

condition, state of.

158

pancreat/o

pancreas.

159

parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands.

160

pineal/o

pineal gland.

161

pituitar/o

pituitary gland.

162

poly-

many.

163

somat/o

body.

164

thym/o

"thymus gland, soul."

165

thyr/o, thyroid/o

thyroid gland.

166

acromegaly

abnormal enlargement of the extremeties caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty

167

Addison's disease

occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone

168

adrenalitis

inflammation of the adrenal glands

169

aldosteronism

an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone

170

antidiuretic hormone

helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted

171

calcitonin

works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues

172

Conn's syndrome

a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone

173

cortisol

"regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body"

174

cretinism

a congenital form of hypothyroidism

175

Cushing's syndrome

caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol

176

diabetes insipidus

insufficient production or utilization of the antidiuretic hormone

177

diabetes mellitus

metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both

178

diabetic retinopathy

"occurs when diabetes damages blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior segment"

179

electrolytes

mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood

180

epinephrine

stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, it makes the heart beat faster and the liver release glucose; a vasoconstrictor to treat heart dysrhythmias and asthma attacks. Also known as adrenaline

181

estrogen

develops and maintains the female secondary sex characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle

182

exophthalmos

an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

183

follicle-stimulating hormone

stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova; stimulates the production of sperm

184

fructosamine test

measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks

185

gestational diabetes mellitus

diabetes that develops during pregnancy and that usually resolves after pregnancy

186

gigantism

excessive largeness of stature

187

glucagon

"secreted by the pancreas, increases blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver"

188

glucose

"Sugar, Manufactured during photosynthesis"