Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 13 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 13 Deck (175):
1

polymenorrhea

the occurrence of menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal

2

postpartum

after childbirth

3

postpartum depression

a mood disorder characterized by feelings of sadness and the loss of pleasure in normal activities that can occur shortly after giving birth

4

preeclampsia

a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria

5

pregnancy

the condition of having a developing child in the uterus

6

pregnancy test

performed to detect an unusually high level of the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone in either a blood or urine specimen, which is usually an indication of pregnancy

7

premature ejaculation

a condition in which the male reaches climax too soon, usually before, or shortly after, penetration of the female

8

premature infant

a fetus born before the 37th week of gestation

9

premature menopause

a condition in which the ovaries cease functioning before age 40 years due to disease, a hormonal disorder, or surgical removal

10

premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

a condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems that are closely linked to the menstrual cycle

11

premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

a group of symptoms experienced by some women within the 2-week period before menstruation

12

priapism

a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is not accompanied by sexual excitement

13

primigravida

a woman during her first pregnancy

14

primipara

a women who has borne one viable child

15

prostate gland

lies under the bladder and surrounds the end of the urethra in the region where the vas deferens enters the urethra

16

pruritus vulvae

a condition of severe itching of the external female genitalia

17

puerperium

the time from the delivery of the placenta through approximately the first 6 weeks after the delivery

18

pyosalpinx

an accumulation of pus in the fallopian tube

19

quickening

the first movement of the fetus in the uterus that can be felt by the mother

20

radical hysterectomy

a procedure that includes the surgical removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, the uterus and cervix, plus nearby lymph nodes; most commonly performed to treat uterine cancer

21

salpingectomy

the surgical removal of one or both fallopian tubes

22

salpingitis

an inflammation of a fallopian tube

23

salpingo-oophorectomy

the surgical removal of a fallopian tube and ovary

24

scrotum

the saclike structure that surrounds, protects, and supports the testicles

25

semen

the whitish fluid containing sperm that is ejaculated through the urethra at the peak of male sexual excitement

26

seminal vesicles

glands that secrete a thick, yellow substance to nourish the sperm cells

27

seminiferous tubules

location of sperm formation

28

sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

infections that affect both males and females

29

sperm

the male gametes (reproductive cells)

30

sperm count

the testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine the volume plus the number, shape, size, and motility of the sperm

31

spermatocele

a cyst that develops in the epididymis and is filled with a milky fluid containing sperm

32

spermatogenesis

the process of sperm formation

33

sterilization

any procedure rendering an individual (male or female) incapable of reproduction

34

stillbirth

the birth of a fetus that died before, or during, the delivery

35

syphilis

an STD caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum; has many symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from other STDs

36

testicles

the two small, egg-shaped glands that produce the sperm

37

testicular cancer

the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 34 years

38

testicular pain

pain in one or both testicles

39

testicular self-examination

a self-help step in early detection of testicular cancer by detecting limps, swelling, or changes in the skin of the scrotum

40

testicular torsion

a sharp pain in the scrotum caused by twisting of the vas deferens and blood vessels leading into the testicle

41

testitis

inflammation of one or both testicles

42

total hysterectomy

the surgical removal of the uterus and the cervix

43

trichomoniasis

an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis; also known as trich

44

tubal ligation

a surgical sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent sperm from reaching a mature ovum

45

umbilical cord

the tube that carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients from the placenta to the developing child

46

urethra

in the male, the urethra passes through the penis to the outside of the body

47

urologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males

48

uterine cancer

involves cancerous growth on the linint of the uterus

49

uterine fibroid

a benign tumor composed of muscle and fibrous tissue that occurs in the wall of the uterus

50

uterine involution

the return of the uterus to its normal size and former condition after delivery

51

uterine prolapse

the condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina

52

uterus

a pear-shaped organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels

53

vagina

the muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body

54

vaginal candidiasis

a vaginal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans; also known as a yeast infection

55

vaginal orifice

the exterior opening of the vagina

56

vaginitis

an inflammation of the lining of the vagina

57

varicocelectomy

the removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele

58

variocele

a knot of varicose veins in one side of the scrotum

59

vas deferens

the long, narrow continuations of each epididymis

60

vasectomy

the male sterilization procedure in which a small portion of the vas deferens is surgically removed

61

vasovasostomy

vasectomy reversal

62

VBAC

Vaginal Birth After a Caesarean

63

vernix

a greasy substance that protects the fetus in utero and can still be present at birth

64

viable

the fetus when it is capable of living outside the uterus

65

vulva

consists of the labia, clitoris, Bartholin's glands, and vaginal orifice

66

vulvitis

an inflammation of the vulva

67

vulvodynia

a syndrome of unknown cause that is characterized by chronic burning, pain during sexual intercourse, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva

68

zygote

the single cell formed that results from the union of sperm and egg; a new life

69

Bone Scan

nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown; *radionuclide tracer is injected into bloodstream*

70

Perfusion

blood flow through a tissue or organ

71

Positron Emission Tomography

also known as PET imaging, combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs

72

OTC Drug

a medication that can be purchased without a prescription

73

Paradoxical reaction

the result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results

74

Placebo

an inactive substance, such as, a sugar pill, that is administered only for its suggestive effects

75

Potentiation

a drug interaction that occurs when the effect of one drug is increased by another drug, herbal remedy, or other treatment

76

Analgesic

refers to the class of drugs that relieves pain without affecting consciousness; *aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen*

77

Topical Application

a liquid or ointment that is rubbed into the skin on the area to be treated; *cortisone, antibiotic*

78

Subcutaneous

fatty layer just below the skin; (below dermis, above muscle)

79

Assessment

the evaluation or appraisal of a condition

80

Hypothermia

an abnormally low body temperature

81

Pulse

the rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by contraction of the heart

82

Sphygmomanometer

measures blood pressure

83

Auscultation

listening for sounds within the body usually performed through a stethoscope

84

Rale

an abnormal rattle or crackle-like respiratory sound heard during inspiration

85

Otoscope

an instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane

86

Prone Position

lying on the belly with the face down

87

Horizontal recumbent

(Supine) patient is lying on the back with the face up.

88

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

a test based on the speed at which the red blood cells separate from the plasma and settle to the bottom of the container

89

Red blood cell count

a determination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood

90

Crossmatch test

performed to determine the compatibility of donor and recipient blood before a transfusion

91

C-reactive protein test

performed to identify high levels of inflammation within the body

92

Specific gravity

reflects the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids that are present in the urine

93

Albuminuria

presence of the protein albumin in the urine and is the sign of impaired kidney function

94

Calciuria

the presence of calcium in the urine

95

Glycosuria

the presence of glucose in the urine, most commonly caused by diabetes

96

Proteinuria

the presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine; *sign of kidney disease*

97

Pyuria

The presence of pus in the urine. When pus is presence, the urine has a turbid (cloudy or smokey) appearance

98

Pericardiocentesis

the puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid

99

Radiograph

X-Ray; An image of hard tissue internal structures is created by exposure of sensitized film to x-radiation

100

Postanterior projection

had the patient positioned facing the film and parallel to it; * the x-ray beam travels thru the body from posterior to anterior

101

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRI; uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to create signals that are sent to a computer and converted into images of any plane through the body

102

Magnetic resonance angio

MRA; combines MRI with the use of a contrast medium to locate problems within blood vessels throughout the body

103

Nuclear medicine

branch of medicine that deals with the use of radioactive substances in research, diagnosis, and treatment

104

Radiopharmaceuticals

radioactive pharmaceuticals; administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes

105

Nuclear Imaging

production of diagnostic images of the structure and function of the organ or organs being examined in nuclear medicine

106

ac

before meals

107

ad lib

as desired

108

amt

amount

109

bid

twice a day

110

c with a line over it

with

111

NPO

nothing by mouth

112

p.c.

after meals

113

p.o.

by mouth

114

p.r.n.

as needed

115

q.d.

everyday

116

q.h.

every hour

117

q.i.d.

four times a day

118

Rx

prescription

119

sig

to be labeled accordingly

120

t.i.d.

three times a day

121

Vital signs

four key indications that the body systems are functioning: temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure. VSS - vital signs stable

122

Temperature

An average normal body temperature is 98.6ºF or 37.0ºC

123

Fever

A temperature higher than 100ºF is a fever

124

Hyperthermia

extremely high fever

125

Respiration

RR - respiratory rate; The number of complete breaths per minute, normal is 12-20 respirations per minute

126

Blood pressure

force of the blood against the walls of the arteries, measured using a sphygmomanometer. Systolic is the first beat heard, diastolic is the last beat heard.

127

Pain

considered in certain settings, such as a hospital, as the fifth vital sign. It is a subjective symptom so it is determined as reported by the patient

128

Rhonchi

coarse rattling sounds somewhat like snoring, usually caused by secretions int he bronchial airways - singular rhonchus

129

Stridor

abnormal, high-pitched musical breathing sound caused by a blockage in the throat or in the larynx (voice box)

130

Bruit

abnormal sound or murmur heard during ausculatation of an artery, usually due to partially blocked, narrowed, or diseased artery

131

Hart murmur

an abnormal heart sound that is most commonly a sign of defective heart valves, described by volume and the stage of the heartbeat when the murmur is heard

132

Abdominal sounds

normal noises made by the intestines; increased bowel sounds can indicate an obstroction, and absence of them can indicate ileus (stopping of intestinal peristalsis)

133

Palpation

the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts

134

Percussion

diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the fingers

135

Ophthalmoscope

instrument used to examine the interior of the eye

136

Speculum

instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior

137

Stethoscope

Instrument used to listen to sounds withing the body

138

Recumbent

describes any position in which the patient is lying down. In radiography the term decubitus describes the patient in a recumbent position

139

Dorsal recumbent

patient is lying on the back, face up, with the knees bent

140

Lithotomy position

patient is lying on the back, face up, with the feet and legs raised and supported in stirrups

141

Sims' position

lying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back

142

Knee-chest position

lying face down with the hips bent so that the knees and chest rest on the table

143

Profile

tests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multi-channel laboratory testing equipment

144

stat

from latin statim, meaning immediately

145

Phlebotomist

medical professional trained to draw blood from patients or various tests and procedures

146

Phlebotomy

puncture of a vein for the purpose of drawing blood - venipuncture

147

Arterial stick

puncture of an artery, usually on the inside of the wrist, to obtain arterial blood which differes from venous blood in the concentration of dissolved gases it contains

148

Capillary puncture

technique used when only a small amount of blood is needed as a specimen for a blood test

149

Complete blood cell counts

CBC - series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions. Include: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hematocrit, platelet count, red blood cell count, total hemoglobin test, white blood cell count, white blood cel differenctial count

150

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ESR - test based on the speed with which the red blood cells separate from the plasma and fall to the bottom of the specialized test tube. Elevated sed rate indicates inflammation in the body (normal <20-40 mm/hr for adults over 50)

151

Hematocrit

percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by red cells

152

Platelet count

measures number of platelets in a specified amount of blood and is a screening test to evaluate platelet function and to monitor changes associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy

153

Red blood cell count

RBC - number of erythrocytes in the bood. A depressed count can indicate anemia or a hemorrhage lasting more than 24 hours

154

Total hemoglobin test

Hb - elevated Hb levels indicate possible polycythemia or dehidration. Low Hb indicates anemia, recent hemorrhage, or fluid retention

155

White blood cell count

WBC - determination of leukocytes, an elevated count can indicate infection or inflammation

156

White blood cell differential count

tests what percentage of the total white blood cell count is composed of each of the five types of leukocytes to glean information about the patient's immune system, detect leukemia or severity of infection

157

Basic metabolic panel

MBP or profile 8 - tests provide information about patient's kidneys, electrolyte balance, blood sugar, and calcium levels.

158

Blood urea nitrogen test

BUN test - measures amount of nitrogen in the blood due to the waste product urea, the major end product of protein metabolism found in urine and blood

159

C-reactive protein test

CRP - to detect C-reactive protein, which is produced by the liver only during episodes of acute inflammation

160

Lipid panel

Measures the amounts of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides in blood

161

Prothrombin time

Measures clotting time, a longer prothrombin time can be caused by serious liver disease, bleeding disorders, blood thinning medicines, or a lack of vitamin K

162

Serum bilirubin test

measures the ability of the liver to take up, process, and secrete bilirubin into the bile

163

Thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

measures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that can indicate abnormal thyroid activity

164

Arterial blood gas analysis

ABG - measures the pH, oxygen, and CO2 levels of arterial blood

165

Urinalysis

examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

166

Casts

fibrous or protein materials such as pus and fats thrown off in the urine in kidney disease

167

pH

Average normal urine pH levels range from 4.5 to 8.0; below 7 indicate acidosis, above 7 indicate conditions such as UTI

168

Bacteriuria

presence of bacteria in urine

169

Creatinuria

increased concentration of creatinine, a waste product of muscle metabolism normally removed by the kidneys

170

Hematuria

presence of blood in the urine, caused by kidney stones, infection, kidney damage, or bladder cancer

171

Ketonuria

presence of ketones in urine, which are formed when the body breaks down fat; can indicate starvation or uncontrolled diabetes

172

Pyuria

presence of pus in the urine

173

Urine culture and sensitivity test

used to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection and to determine the most effective antibiotic

174

Laparoscopy

visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with a laparoscope through a small incision in the abdominal wall; lapar/o - flank or abdomen

175

Centesis

surgical puncture to remove excess fluid or to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes