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Flashcards in Medicine and Health Through Time Deck (66):
1

Causes of Illness and Disease

What were the four problems in the Middle Ages that led to illness and disease?

Poverty, Famine, Warfare, Accidental Death.

2

Causes of Illness and Disease

What are some examples of Poverty in the Middles Ages?

25% had farms for crops.

Bad harvests led to starving.

Rural families had to buy food.

Children died young.

3

Causes of Illness and Disease

What are some examples of Famine in the Middles Ages?

William the Conquerer ruined crops in 1069.

Bad weather ruined crops.

15% of the population died between 1315-1325.

Cannibalism.

4

Causes of Illness and Disease

What are some examples of Warfare in the Middles Ages?

Battle of Townton 1461. 22,000-28,000 soldiers were killed.

Soldiers took food and people in villages died.

5

Causes of Illness and Disease

What are some examples of Accidental Death in the Middles Ages?

Maud Fras in 1288 when a rock dropped on her head.

Johanna Appleton in 1389 fell into a well.

St Anthony's Disease was common.

6

Causes of Illness and Disease

What were the five things that people thought led to illness and disease in the Middles Ages?

God, Supernatural, Four Humours, Bad Smells, Everyday Life.

7

Causes of Illness and Disease

Why did people believe that God caused illness and disease in the Middles Ages?

Illness was God's way of punishing sinners. If society was being sinful, a plague would remind people. Religion played a huge part in people's lives so a lot of people believed this.

8

Causes of Illness and Disease

Why did people believe that the Supernatural caused illness and disease in the Middles Ages?

Mystery and magic. Viking sagas suggested elves and spirits. Witchcraft was feared. People believed that the world was full of demons.

9

Causes of Illness and Disease

Why did people believe that the Four Humours caused illness and disease in the Middles Ages?

The four liquids in the body were out of balance. Doctors agreed that illness was caused by this and used a zodiac chart to find the correct time to treat illness.

10

Causes of Illness and Disease

Why did people believe that Bad Smells caused illness and disease in the Middles Ages?

People said that you could smell a town before you saw it. People lived longer in towns and cities than those in the countryisde, who lived close together with animals and filfth.

11

Causes of Illness and Disease

Why did people believe that Everyday Life caused illness and disease in the Middles Ages?

Children died before seven. Women died in childbirth and men would remarry. People believed it was inevitable so it seemed natural when people died.

12

Causes of Illness and Disease

When was the Black Death?

1348 (Middle Ages).

13

Causes of Illness and Disease

How many people died during the Black Death in the Middle Ages?

50-66% of the British population.

14

Causes of Illness and Disease

What did people believe caused the Black Death in the Middle Ages?

Bad smells, four humours, planets, God being angry, people showing off, China earthquake 1347, Jews poisoning wells.

15

Causes of Illness and Disease

What actually caused the Black Death in the Middle Ages?

Rats or human contact.

16

Causes of Illness and Disease

When was the Great Plague?

1665 (Renaissance).

17

Causes of Illness and Disease

How many people died during the Great Plague in the Renaissance?

30% of York. 100,000 people in London (25% of its population).

18

Causes of Illness and Disease

What did people believe caused the Great Plague in the Renaissance?

Bad smells, the air, skin contact, the ground, evil spirits, God, the Devil.

19

Causes of Illness and Disease

What diseases were common in Workers in the 19th Century?

Contagious diseases such as typhoid, typhus, diarrhoea, and smallpox.

20

Causes of Illness and Disease

Which Workers got lung diseases by inhaling too much dust in the 19th Century?

Coal miners.

21

Causes of Illness and Disease

Why would so many Workers get injured in the 19th Century?

There were hardly any regulations in factories and machines in new factories were unsafe and many people lost limbs.

22

Causes of Illness and Disease

What disease was common in Children in the 19th Century?

Rickets, caused by lack of sunlight and calcium.

23

Causes of Illness and Disease

Which Children got cancer from soot and gases in the 19th Century?

Young chimney sweepers.

24

Causes of Illness and Disease

What percentage of all Children would die before the age of five in Manchester 1842 in the 19th Century?

57%.

25

Causes of Illness and Disease

Which Children got Phossy-Jaw?

Young girls working in factories making matches.

26

Causes of Illness and Disease

What was Family Living like in the 19th Century?

Whole families often lived in one room, or a cellar which could flood. Children shared beds, multiple families shared toilets and water.

27

Causes of Illness and Disease

What were the average life expectancies for people in London 1842 in the 19th Century?

Rich people lived to 45. Workers lived to 16.

28

Causes of Illness and Disease

What would happen if you got Cholera in the 19th Century?

Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, dehydration.

29

Causes of Illness and Disease

How would you catch Cholera in the 19th Century?

Consuming contaminated water.

30

Causes of Illness and Disease

When were there epidemics for Cholera in the 19th Century?

1831-32, 1848, 1854, 1866.

31

Causes of Illness and Disease

What would happen if you got Typhoid in the 19th Century?

Diarrhoea, fever, aches and pains, intestinal bleeding.

32

Causes of Illness and Disease

How would you catch Typhoid in the 19th Century?

Human interaction and poor sanitation.

33

Causes of Illness and Disease

When were there outbreaks of Typhoid in the 19th Century?

1897-98 in Kent. 1,800 caught it, with 132 dying.

34

Causes of Illness and Disease

What would happen if you got the Spanish Lady in the Modern Era?

It was deadly and impacted quickly: Headache, sore throat, loss of appetite.

35

Causes of Illness and Disease

How would you catch the Spanish Lady in the Modern Era?

It evolved from bird flu and human interaction.

36

Causes of Illness and Disease

What percentage of the world did the Spanish Lady infect in the Modern Era?

20%.

37

Causes of Illness and Disease

What helped to spread the Spanish Lady in the Modern Era?

World War One.

38

Causes of Illness and Disease

How many deaths were there in Spain from the Spanish Lady in the Modern Era?

Over 7 million.

39

Causes of Illness and Disease

How many deaths were there in the UK from the Spanish Lady in the Modern Era?

280,000.

40

Causes of Illness and Disease

What would happen if you got AIDS in the Modern Era?

It would stop your immune system, resulting in death by a weaker disease.

41

Causes of Illness and Disease

How would you catch AIDS in the Modern Era?

Unprotected sex with someone with AIDS, sharing hypodermic needles, contaminated blood transfusion, mother to child by childbirth or breastfeeding.

42

Causes of Illness and Disease

When was AIDS first identified in the Modern Era?

1981.

43

Causes of Illness and Disease

How many people had died from AIDS by 2014 in the Modern Era?

40 million.

44

Causes of Illness and Disease

Who set up AIDS awareness campaigns in the Modern Era?

World Health Organisation.

45

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

How could you prevent illness according to the Four Humours in the Middles Ages?

You need to keep your Four Humours balanced, and this can be done through purging or bleeding.

46

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What are four examples of how people tried to prevent the Black Death in the Middles Ages?

Avoid contact with the infected, clear the streets of filfth, bleeding, pray for forgiveness.

47

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

Who were Alchemists in the Middles Ages?

Alchemists tended to be secretive about their experiments so all kinds of stories were made up about them.

48

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What are some examples of things Alchemists did in the Middle Ages?

One claimed to be 1,000 years old as they claimed to have the Elixir of Life. Strong potions using poison made patients violently sick to prevent disease.

49

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

Who were Soothsayers in the Middle Ages?

There were very few qualified doctors so people depended on the local 'wise woman', who had knowledge of sickness and disease, and had powers of prophesy.

50

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What are some examples of things Soothsayers did in the Middle Ages?

Collected plants and herbs. Put together special charms for protection against evil, but for a price.

51

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

Who were Medieval Doctors in the Middles Ages?

Monks, apothcaries, barber surgeons, physicians.

52

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What are some examples of things Medieval Doctors did in the Middle Ages?

Monks would provide simple medical care before 1536.

Apothcaries made herbal remedies.

Barber surgeons pulled teeth and set broken limbs.

Physicians trained in Italy or Paris universities.

53

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What are three examples of things people did to try and prevent illness in the 18th Century?

Bloodletting, exercise, vegetarianism.

54

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What was Cold Water Treatment in the 18th Century?

Bathing in fresh water at a spa to prevent illness, and eating 'cooling' foods.

55

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

The water of which places was believed to be good for your health in the 18th Century?

Buxton and Bath.

56

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What was Child Bed Fever in the Modern Era?

Doctors getting ill from their patients?

57

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What did Alexander Gordon suggest that could prevent Child Bed Fever in the Modern Era?

Doctors regularly wash themselves.

58

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What three new inventions came about in the 19th Century that would help medicine?

Microscope, stethoscope, blood pressure machine.

59

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What did James Lind discover the cause of in 1753 in the Modern Era?

Scurvy.

60

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What did James Lind say sailors needed to prevent getting Scurvy in the Modern Era?

Limes.

61

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

Which disease did Dr John Snow do work on in 1854 in the Modern Era?

Cholera.

62

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What did John Snow discover about how to prevent Cholera in the Modern Era?

He discovered that there were deaths around a pump and so he took the handle.

63

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What is a vaccination?

A substance that makes the body produce antibodies against an illness, which stops you getting the illness in the future. Usually made out of a dead or weakened version of the disease.

64

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

Who did Edward Jenner take pus from?

Milkmaids with smallpox.

65

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

Who did Edward Jenner inject the pus into?

9-year-old James Phipps.

66

Attempts to Prevent Illness and Disease

What happened to James Phipps?

He developed cowpox, but was then immune to smallpox.