Flashcards in Medieval Britain (c.1250-c.1500) Deck (37):
When was the crowning of William the Conqueror?
What did William implement?
The Feudal system
What was the Feudal system?
A method used to govern the country throughout the era.It consisted of:
What percentage of the population were peasants?
What kind of houses did rural peasants live in?
What were the features of a cruck house?
-One room shelters
-No running water or toilets
-Made from daub (a mixture of straw, reeds, mud and manure)
What was the importance of the church?
-Symbols of power and wealth
-The majority believed in the concept of heaven and hell
-Allowed to raise its own tax called the tithe
What was a 'tithe'
10% of the land farmed (tax)
What kind of houses did the wealthy live in?
Grand manor houses
What were the features of a grand manor house?
-Built from stone
-Have its own estate
-Own water supply
What were the features of a Medieval town?
-Lots of vermin
-Animal manure littered roads
-Waste thrown on streets
-No rubbish collectors
Historian reference-Ian Mortimer
there was 'a real filth and stench in the streets'
What were the features of everyday houses in towns?
-Animals lived with owners in there homes
-Floors were basic and made up of clay with straw placed over the top
-Made rom wood, wattle and daub
-one room and overpopulated
What were the features of town rivers?
-Used as toilets and open sewers ran directly into them
-Illnesses linked to water contamination
-Used to decompose rubbish
-Main source of water used to collect cooking and drinking water
What was government regulation like in medieval Britain?
It did not exist: It wasn't seen as the role of the government to improve public health
Why was it challenging for officials to enforce and police changes?
they did not have the numbers and most people connected illnesses and disease with God or bad, foul smelling air called miasma
What stopped people from dumping excrement in ditches and rivers?
In 1388 an act was passed by the English parliament
how many hospitals began to be set up?
when was St. Bartholomew's hospital established?
what happened in 1345 to improve public health?
fines were introduced, to those throwing litter into the streets. Teams of rakes were also employed, to remove dirt and debris.
what started to happen in the 13th century?
-Cess pits were starting to built with stone lining
-Houses were being built with foundations
these made it less likely for water to seep to the water supply
What was the features of the monasteries?
-Piping and drainage system and running sewers
-Own water supply from reservoirs
-Privies and kitchens kept separate
-Provided limited health care for the vulnerable such as an infirmary fro monks and a separate hospital fro ordinary people
Why was improvements during this era limited?
The rich would not pay, health was a low priority and many believed God was deciding if you were to become sick
Between what dates was the black death? (worst epidemic of this era)
How many people did the plague kill?
It killed about 75-200 million people. This included 50% of China and 30-40% of Europe's total population
Where do most scholars believe the plague originated from?
How was the plague spread to Europe?
It was carried to Europe by flees living on the backs of black rats. These rats typically lived on ships therefore it would have been easily transported from country to another
Historian reference-Mike Ibeji
'A national trauma that utterly transformed Britain'
What were the types of plague?
coldness, tiredness, buboes and blisters that was followed by a high fever, unconsciousness and eventually death
2.Pineumonic-Would attack lungs then you would cough up blood and be killed within 48 hours.
How were the bodies of those that died of plague buried?
To begin with they were buried in their own coffins, however the increase in bodies resulted in corpses being thrown in big pits filled with quicklime,to help them root quickly
What did the people of Medieval Britain blame the black death on?
-Astrologists blamed the alignment of the planets.
-The clergy thought it was Gods. punishment for society becoming corrupt
-Flagellants travelled towns seeking gods forgiveness by whipping themselves.
-Religious minorities such as the Jews were blamed with Christians accusing them of poisoning wells in order to wipe out Christianity.
what were the attempts made to find cures?
-Drinking rotten treacle.
-Carrying sweet smelling flowers.
-Application of a paste, made with flower root, tree resin and human excrement.
-Some turned to ancient explanations 'stuffed with evil humours'. This led to people bleeding themselves.
which methods proved effective in prevents plague being spread?
Many European countries established strict rules about travel. Poor cities such as Venice set up quarantine. Houses containing the infected were closed off and had red crosses painted on them. Finally the royal court lest London every summer when infection was highest
When was the 'peasants revolt'
What was the peasants revolt?
In reaction to heavy tax demands the peasants revolted, leading to the biggest rebellion in the middle ages.
What impact did the peasants revolt have?
Peasants received more money, as the lords need for labourers grew. This was because of the amount of workers that died due to the black death.