Megakaryopoiesis, History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Megakaryopoiesis, History Deck (184):
1

Clonal assays of megakaryocytic progenitor cells begun

1970

2

Extraction of platelets

Apheresis

3

Process of formation of thrombocyte

Megakaryopoiesis

4

Maturation of megakaryocyte in the bone marrow

5 days

5

Doubling of DNA without cell division

Endomitosis

6

Discovered megakaryocyte

Howell

7

Progenitor of megakaryocyte

BFU-Meg
CFU-Meg
LD-CFU-Meg

8

Ways to differentiate progenitor

Immunologic probes or Flow cytometry
Cytochemical staining

9

Platelets are directly produced from the

Megakaryocyte cytoplasm

10

Identification of Megakaryoblast

GP Ib/IX/V
GP IV
mpl

11

Described platelets as extremely minute granules in blood

Addison

12

Cytochemical staining

Platelet peroxidase-ER
Platelet peroxidase-DTS

13

Cytochemical stain for progenitors, and megakaryoblast

Platelet peroxidase-ER

14

Blue cytoplasm with blunt projections

Megakaryoblast

15

Cytochemical stain for mature platelets

Platelet peroxidase-DTS

16

CD42b

GP-Ib

17

Megakaryoblast diameter

14-18um

18

Endomitosis is complete in what stage

Megakaryoblast

19

Fine chromatin

Megakaryoblast

20

15-40um in diameter

Promegakaryocyte

21

30-50um in diameter

Megakaryocyte

22

Criterion for the maturity of the cell

Chromatin pattern

23

Chromatin becomes coarse

Promegakaryocyte

24

NC ratio of 3:1

Megakaryoblast

25

NC ratio of Promegakaryocyte

1:2

26

Largest cell in circulation

Monocyte

27

Chromatin of megakaryocyte is already

Condensed

28

Cytoplasm is eosinophilic and granular

Megakaryocyte

29

Found in myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic disorder

Dwarf or micromegakaryocyte

30

CD 42

GP Ib/IX/V

31

CD36

GP IV

32

Largest cell in bone marrow

Megakaryocyte

33

Cytoplasm is pale blue and may contain pink granules reminiscent of mature platelets

Dwarf/micromegakaryocyte

34

How do platelets are released?

-Demarcation or invagination
-Fragmentation of cytoplasm
-Through micro tubular action proplatelets are formed

35

Pseudopodal extension of megakaryocyte

Proplatelets

36

Induce stem cell proliferation, induce proliferation and platelet released

Thrombopoietin

37

TPO is found in

Liver
Kidney
Smooth muscle

38

For early differentiation of stem cells

Il-3

39

Acts in the presence of TPO to enhance endomitosis, megakaryocyte maturation

IL 6 and 11

40

Neutralizer of heparin

PF4
Beta-Thromboglobulim

41

Inhibitors of Megakaryocyte growth

PF4
b-TG
Neutrophil activating peptide-2
IL-8
FOG
GATA-1
NF-E2

42

Newly released platelets

Reticulated platelets

43

Larger than mature platelets

Reticulated platelets

44

Platelet life span

8-11 days

45

Reticulate platelets

Stress platelets

46

6um in diameter

Stress platelets

47

Stress platelets in EDTA

Round

48

Stress platelets in citrate

Cylindrical and beaded

49

Stress platelets caryy

Free ribosomes and fragment of T
RER

50

Diagnosis of stress platelets and positive results

Flow cytometer
(+) result - 3k fold increase in fluorescence

51

Structure unique to platelets

Glycocalyx

52

Who also observed platelets adhesive qualities of increased stickiness when a vascular wall is damaged

Addison

53

Labeled antibody directed against GP Ib

Phycoerythrin

54

Nucleic acid dyes that bind RNA of ER

Thiazole orange

55

Anucleated blood cell with a diameter of 2.5um

Platelet

56

Normal value of platelets

150-400k

57

Platelets value at birth and women

Lower at birth
Higher in women

58

30% of platelets are seen in

Spleen

59

Triggers primary hemostasis

Platelet

60

Compose of tubulin

Microtubules

61

Circulating, resting platelets are what shape

Biconvex

62

Structure unique to platelets

Glycocalyx

63

Adhesive structure, that responds readily to hemostatic requirements

Glycocalyx

64

Platelet in EDTA

Round

65

Compose of tubulin

Microtubules

66

Cytoplasm of platelets are

Stain light blue with azurophilic granules

67

Surrounds the chromomere, non grab
Nular and clear to light blue

Hyalomere

68

Nucleus has slight lobulation

Promegakaryocyte

69

CD41

GP-Ib/IIIa

70

Immunologic probes

PF4
VWF
HLA-DR
GP-Ib
GP-Ib/IIIa

71

Stabilizes membrane, maintains fluidity, and helps control transmembranous passage

Cholesterol

72

Flips and where coagulation enzymes assemble

Phosphatidylethanolamine

73

Intensely lobulated

Megakaryocyte

74

Platelet structure

Peripheral zone
Sol gel zone
Organelles zone
Membranous zone

75

Maintain negative charge surface of the platelets to avoid thrombus formation

Glycocalyx

76

Components of plasma membrane

Cholesterol
Fatty acids
Carbohydrates

77

Structure that provides phospholipids

Submembranous area

78

25nm in size, make up the mitotic spindle fibers

Microtubules

79

Migrates to plasma membrane and release their contents directly into plasma on activation

Dense core granules

80

Phospholipids located at the inner cytoplasmic layer

Phosphatidylinositol
Phosphatidylethanolamine
Phosphatidyl serine

81

Selectively permeable membrane

Plasma membrane

82

Structural support for normally discoid cell

Tubulin

83

Contract on activation to encourage expression of alpha granule contents

Microtubules

84

Anchors plasma membrane glycoproteins

Actin

85

Maintains the platelet structure

Microtubules

86

Provides rigidity to pseudopods

Microtubules

87

Structure for attachment

Pseudopods

88

Composition of microfilaments

Actin
Myosin

89

Causes platelets to contract

Actin

90

Dense granule that detected using lumiaggregometry "luciferase luminescence"

ATP

91

Contents of alpha granules flow to the?

Adjacent microenvironment

92

Adhesive structure, that responds readily to hemostatic requirements

Glycocalyx

93

Phospholipids located at the plasma layer

Phosphatidylcholine
Sphingomyelin

94

Thisdisorder stays gray in osmium dye in TEM

Gray plasma syndrome

95

Present throughout the cytoplasm

Actin

96

Regulates vascular permeability and regulates calcium mobilization in the bone

PF4

98

Fuse with SCCS

Alpha granules

99

Stabilizes membrane, maintains fluidity, and helps control transmembranous passage

Cholesterol

100

Flips and where coagulation enzymes assemble

Phosphatidylethanolamine

101

In resting platelet it is globular and amorphous

Actin

102

59-80% of the platelets composition

Alpha granules

103

Content of this granule participate in adhesion, aggregation and plasma coagulation

Alpha granules

104

Contents of alpha granules

Fibrinogen
VWF
Factor V and VIII
PF4
P-selectin or CD62
B-thromboglobulin
PDGF

105

Alpha granule for production of fibrin strand

Fibrinogen

106

Control center for platelets activation

DTS

107

Alpha granule that aids as an adhesion molecule

vWF

108

Labile factors. Easily consumed in circulation. Co factors for other coagulation

Factor V and VIII

109

Neutralizes or inhibits heparin

PF4

110

Alpha granule for endothelial cell and leukocytes binding

P-selectin or CD62

111

Aside from PF4, this granule also neutralizes heparin

B-thromboglobulin

112

Bulls eye

Dense core granules

113

Components of dense core granules

Calcium and magnesium
ADP
Serotonin
ATP

114

Dense granule for activation and coagulation

Calcium and magnesium

115

Calcium sequestering.
Positive staining for platelet peroxidase activity

DTS

116

Route for endocytosis and secretion of granular contents on activation

SCCS

117

Granule that is for repair and growth of damaged cells

PDGF

118

Diminished dense granules contents

Storage pool disorder

119

An inherited absence of alpha granules

Gray plasma syndrome

120

What happen to actin if the cytoplasmic calcium concentration increases

Actin become filamentous and contractile

121

Digest vessel wall components during in vivo aggregation

Lysosomes

122

Derived from rough ER

Dense tubular system

123

Indirect communication with the extra cellular environment

Surface connected canalicular system

124

Site for arachidonic acid metabolism within platelets

DTS

126

Digest autrophic debris

Lysosomes

127

Granule for vasoconstriction

Serotonin

128

Platelet structure

Peripheral zone
Sol gel zone
Organelles zone
Membranous zone

129

Maintain negative charge surface of the platelets to avoid thrombus formation

Glycocalyx

130

Gives bulk to the clot and gives tissue factor

PF4

131

Components of plasma membrane

Cholesterol
Fatty acids
Carbohydrates

132

Structure that provides phospholipids

Submembranous area

133

25nm in size, make up the mitotic spindle fibers

Microtubules

134

Migrates to plasma membrane and release their contents directly into plasma on activation

Dense core granules

135

Phospholipids located at the inner cytoplasmic layer

Phosphatidylinositol
Phosphatidylethanolamine
Phosphatidyl serine

136

Dense granule that support aggregation

ADP

137

Stains black with osmium

Dense core granules

138

Selectively permeable membrane

Plasma membrane

139

Structural support for normally discoid cell

Tubulin

140

Contract on activation to encourage expression of alpha granule contents

Microtubules

141

Anchors plasma membrane glycoproteins

Actin

142

Maintains the platelet structure

Microtubules

143

20-30nm in size, and it is platelets membrane surface

Glycocalyx

144

Phospholipids that supply arachidonic acid

Phosphatidylinositol

145

Provides rigidity to pseudopods

Microtubules

146

Structure for attachment

Pseudopods

147

Composition of microfilaments

Actin
Myosin

148

Causes platelets to contract

Actin

149

Dense granule that detected using lumiaggregometry "luciferase luminescence"

ATP

150

Contents of alpha granules flow to the?

Adjacent microenvironment

152

Phospholipids located at the plasma layer

Phosphatidylcholine
Sphingomyelin

153

Thisdisorder stays gray in osmium dye in TEM

Gray plasma syndrome

154

Present throughout the cytoplasm

Actin

155

Regulates vascular permeability and regulates calcium mobilization in the bone

PF4

157

Fuse with SCCS

Alpha granules

160

In resting platelet it is globular and amorphous

Actin

161

59-80% of the platelets composition

Alpha granules

162

Content of this granule participate in adhesion, aggregation and plasma coagulation

Alpha granules

163

Contents of alpha granules

Fibrinogen
VWF
Factor V and VIII
PF4
P-selectin or CD62
B-thromboglobulin
PDGF

164

Alpha granule for production of fibrin strand

Fibrinogen

165

Control center for platelets activation

DTS

166

Alpha granule that aids as an adhesion molecule

vWF

167

Labile factors. Easily consumed in circulation. Co factors for other coagulation

Factor V and VIII

168

Neutralizes or inhibits heparin

PF4

169

Alpha granule for endothelial cell and leukocytes binding

P-selectin or CD62

170

Aside from PF4, this granule also neutralizes heparin

B-thromboglobulin

171

Bulls eye

Dense core granules

172

Components of dense core granules

Calcium and magnesium
ADP
Serotonin
ATP

173

Dense granule for activation and coagulation

Calcium and magnesium

174

Calcium sequestering.
Positive staining for platelet peroxidase activity

DTS

175

Route for endocytosis and secretion of granular contents on activation

SCCS

176

Granule that is for repair and growth of damaged cells

PDGF

177

Diminished dense granules contents

Storage pool disorder

178

An inherited absence of alpha granules

Gray plasma syndrome

179

What happen to actin if the cytoplasmic calcium concentration increases

Actin become filamentous and contractile

180

Digest vessel wall components during in vivo aggregation

Lysosomes

181

Derived from rough ER

Dense tubular system

182

Indirect communication with the extra cellular environment

Surface connected canalicular system

183

Site for arachidonic acid metabolism within platelets

DTS

185

Digest autrophic debris

Lysosomes

186

Granule for vasoconstriction

Serotonin

189

Gives bulk to the clot and gives tissue factor

PF4

195

Dense granule that support aggregation

ADP

196

Stains black with osmium

Dense core granules

202

20-30nm in size, and it is platelets membrane surface

Glycocalyx

203

Phospholipids that supply arachidonic acid

Phosphatidylinositol