Flashcards in Membranes and Transport Deck (22):
Where is SGLT1 it located? What does it transport and by what method? Where is GLUT2? What does it transport and by what method? Where is GLUT5? What does it transport and by what method? What resets sodium gradient and on what side?
D-glucose and D-Galactose / Na+ secondary active transport in apical side of intestinal epithelial cells.
Basal side, Gluc, galac, and fruc down conc. gradient through facilitated.
Fructose facilitated diffusion on apical side.
Sodium ATP ase on basolateral side
What is the name of rH fetal disease? What is the bad antigen letter? In what genetic pattern is it inherited?
If baby has the d antigen but mother does not, mother will send antigens. More deadly on second pregnancy.
What is the antagonist of the Glutamate receptor that is used to treat Alzheimers?
What is spur cell anemia? What is the physiological effect?
Elevated levels of cholesterol in rbc membrane. RBCs break their membranes as they pass through capillaries of spleen.
What is SGLT1? Where located? Purpose?
Sodium Glucose transporter
Apical side epithelial cells in small intestine
Unidirectional sodium and glucose into epithelial cell from apical side.
What is Nieman Pick Disease? What organelles/organs does buildup occur? What are symptoms?
1. Deficient Acid Sphingomyelinase which breaks down sphingomyelin
2. Lysosome of liver, spleen, and cns.
3. Cherry red in eye. Enlarged liver and spleen, neurological damage.
What is NCX? What does it exchange? What is the net result
Na+ Ca2+ exchanger, Uses 3 sodium down gradient to inside to pump 1 calcium outside
Keep low intracellular calcium
What is mutation in Cystic fibrosis? What is the physiological effects and the symptoms?
Mutation in CFTR gene that codes for chloride channel so nonfunctional, Chlorine stays in cell, sodium comes in cell, water comes in. So thick mucus and then airways can get bacterial infection.
What is defective in Hartnup disease? What are clinical findings? What is the genetic pattern?
Defect in transporter for non-polar and neutral AA's.
No tryphtophan so no melatonin or serotonin.
Cerebral ataxia (lack of muscle coordination), repetitive eye movement, photodermatitis and photosensitivity.
(Side note: tryptophan precursor for seratonin and melatonin)
What is defective in Cystinuria? What two of the symptoms? What is the genetic pattern?
Defect in transporter for Dibasic AA's Cystine, Arginine, Lysine, Ornithine.
Cystine crystals in kidney, and renal cholic (abdominal pain)
What is a glycolipid?
Sphingosine backbone with a carbohydrate chain
What are the two types of Primary active transporters and their differences?
P type ATPases: Protein gets phosphorylated on aspartate residue
ABC Transporters: ATP Hydrolyzed, but does not phosphorylate transporter. Cancer cells use these
What are cardiotonic drugs? What is their mechanism of action and what is the physiological effect of this?
Inhibit sodium potassium pump on cardiac myocytes.
Leads to increase in Ca2+ due to slowing of NCX cause high sodium inside.
Stronger contraction of heart muscle.
Three functions of Glycocalyx
Protection, Cell Adhesion, Cell identification
Membrane fluidity allows for macromolecules to have ______ changes and move to areas for specific function.
How much higher is calcium concentration outside of the cell?
How many are pumped in each direction in sodium potassium ATPase?
2 potassium inside, 3 sodium outside.
How are carbohydrates attached on the plasma membrane?
Covalently attached to membrane lipids and proteins
Coupled reactions must share a common _____
At what temperature is the membrane fluidity best?
Slghtly above Tm, the melting temperature.
3 types of membrane proteins? Subgroup of the first type?
1. Integral membrane proteins (firmly embedded): Subtype polytopic transmembrane proteins (multiple passes)
2. Peripheral proteins
3. Lipid anchored