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Flashcards in Memorization Deck (114):
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CD28

Molecule necessary for T cell activation

1

Plasmin

Breaks down fibrin, fibrinogen and degrades coag factors

2

Factor V Leiden

Produces a factor V resistant to degradation by protein C --> hypercoaguable states!

3

Acanthocyte

Spiny RBCS seen in liver disease and abetalipoproteinemia

4

Basophilic stippling

Seen in thalassemia, anemia of chronic disease and lead poisoning

5

Bite cells

G6PD Deficiency

6

Burton's line, Ab colic, foot/wrist drop, encephalopathy

Lead poisoning

7

X linked for deficiency in ALA synthase

Sideroblastic anemia

8

Child with megaloblastic anemia that can't be cured with b12 or folate

Orotic aciduria
Mutation in uridine monophosphate

9

Fanconi's anemia

DNA repair defect - cause of aplastic anemia

10

X-linked, back pain and hbglobinuria

G6PD defiency

11

Auto recessive, decreased ATP, rigid RBCs

Pyruvate kinase deficiency

12

Glu to Lys on B globin gene

HbC

13

Painful abdomen, port wine colored urine, polyneuropathy, psycho, precipitated by drugs

Acute intermittent porphyria
Accumulation of porphobilinogen, ALA, uroporphyrin
Defective porphobilinogen deaminase

14

Most common porphyria
Tea colored urine
Blistering cutaneous photosensitivity

Porphyria cutanea tarda
Defective uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase

15

Defect in GP1B

Bernard soulier
Defective platelet adhesion

16

Defect in GpIIa/IIIb

Glanzman's thrombasthenia

17

Anti-GpIIa/IIIb antibodies

ITP

18

Deficiency of ADAMTS 13

TTP

19

T(8;14), c-myc

Burkitt lymphoma

20

T(11;14) , cyclin D1, CD 5+, associated with chronic inflammatory states

Mantle cell lymphoma

21

T(14;18), b-cl2

Follicular lymphoma

22

T(15;17)

M3 AML

23

T(9;22)

CML or ALL subtype

24

S100+, CD1a+, birbeck granules

Langerhans histiocytosis

25

Where does the upper body and lateral breast drain?

Axillary lymph nodes

26

What lymph nodes does the stomach drain to?

Celiac nodes

27

What lymph nodes do the duodenum, jejunum drain to?

Superior mesenteric

28

What lymph nodes does the sigmoid colon drain to?

Colic to inferior mesenteric

29

Which lymph nodes does the rectum drain to?

Internal iliac

30

Which lymph nodes does the anal canal drain to?

Superficial inguinal

31

Which lymph nodes do the testes,scrotum, superficial thigh drain to?

Superficial inguinal
Testes to superficial inguinal and then para aortic

32

Where does the lateral foot drain to?

Popliteal

33

What does the right lymphatic duct drain?

The right arm, right chest, right half of the head

34

Where are T cells found in the spleen?

In the periarterial lymphatic sheath within the white pulp

35

What are the encapsulated organisms?

Shin Skis
Strep pneumo
H. Flu
Neisseria meningitidis
Salmonella
Klebsiella
Group B strep

36

What can be seen postsplenectomy?

Howelljolly bodies
Target cells
Thrombocytosis

37

Where does the thymus originate from embryologically?

The 3rd brachial pouch

38

What does MHC I bind?

TCR and CD8

39

Which cells express MHC I?

All uncleared cells

40

What kind of immunity does MHC I mediate?

Viral

41

What does MHC II bind?

TCR and CD4

42

Which cells express MHC II?

APC Cells

43

Which disease is associated with HLA A3?

Hemochromatosis

44

B27

Psoriasis
Ankylosing spondylitis
IBD
Reiter's syndrome - conjunctivitis, urethritis, arthritis

45

DQ2/DQ8

Celiac disease

46

DR2

MS, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture's

47

DR3

DM I
Graves

48

DR4

RA
DM I

49

DR 5

Pernicious anemia
Hashimoto's thyroiditis

50

Which cytokines are NK cells activated by?

IL-2
IL-12
IFN-b
IFN-a

51

Which 2 antibodies activate complement?

IgM and IgG

52

Where does negative selection occur in the thymus?

Medulla - non reactive to self, the ones that are active to self undergo apoptosis
Become CD8 or CD4

53

What does IL-12 do?

Causes differentiation of CD4 T cell to become Th1
Activates NK CELLS

54

What does IL-4 do?

Causes differentiation of helper T cell to become th2

55

What are the costimulatory signals for naive T cell activation?

B7 and CD28

56

What needs to happen for B cell activation?

Presentation by B cell on MHC II to t helper
Bind CD40 to CD40L on T cell --> cytokines determine class switching needed for the antibody production

57

What does th1 secrete?

IFN-gamma to activate macrophage

58

What do macrophages secrete to activate lymphocytes?

IL-1 and TNF-a

59

What do th2 cells secrete?

IL-4
IL-5
IL-10
IL-13
To activate eosinophils and promote IgE production

60

What are th1 cells inhibited by?

IL-4 and IL-10

61

What are th2 cells inhibited by?

INF-gamma

62

What is perforin?

Helps deliver content of granules into target cells

63

What is granzyme?

Serine protease
Activates apoptosis in target cell

64

What is granulysin?

Anti microbial that induces apoptosis

65

What markers to regulatory T cells express?

CD3, CD4, CD 25

66

Which cytokines do regulatory T cells secrete?

IL-10 and TGF-b - non inflammatory

67

What is the most abundant antibody?

IgG

68

What is the lowest antibody in the serum?

IgE

69

What defends us against gram negative bacteria?

MAC complex

70

What does C3b do?

Opsonization

71

What do C3a, C5a do?

Anaphylaxis

72

What does C5a do?

Neutrophil chemotaxis

73

What happens in the alternative pathway for complement activation?

C3b binds the bacterial surface

74

What happens in the lectin pathway?

Complement is activated by lectin or mannose or other sugars on a microbial surface
Use MBL and MASP1 and 2 to make C1 like complex that will cleave C4

75

What is the C3 convertase in the lectin and classic pathway?

C4b2a

76

What is the C3 convertase in the alternative pathway?

C3bBb

77

What is the C5 convertase in the classic and lectin pathway?

C4bC2a3b

78

What is the C5 convertase in the alternative pathway?

C3bBb3b

79

What is the classic complement pathway activated by?

IgM and IgG antigen-antibody complexes

80

What is the function of IL-1?

Pyrogen
Acute inflammation
Activates endothelium to express adhesion molecules
Induces chemokine secretion

81

What is the function of IL-2?

Stimulates T cells

82

What is the function of IL-3?

Stimulates BM stem cells

83

What is the function of IL-4?

Stimulates IgE production and IgG
Stimulates differentiation in Th2

84

What is the function of IL-5?

Stimulates IgA production and eosinophils

85

What is the function of IL-8?

Neutrophil recruitment

86

What is the function of IL-12?

Induces differentiation of Th1 cells
Activates NK cells

87

What is the function of TNF-a?

Mediates septic shock - causes vascular leakage and leukocytes recruitment
Also responsible for cachexia in cancer

88

What is the function of INF-a?

Activates macrophages and Th1 cells
Suppresses Th2
Increasing MHC I and II presentation of all cells
Increasing antigen presentation in all cells

89

What is the function of IL-10?

Inhibit activated T cells

90

What is the function of interferon a and b?

Inhibiting viral protein synthesis by induction of ribonuclease that inhibits viral protein synthesis by degrading viral mRNA

91

What are the B cell markers?

CD19, 20, 21
CD40
MHC II
B7

92

What is the B cell marker used by EBV?

CD21

93

What are the markers for macrophages?

CD14
CD40
MHC II
B7
Fc
C3b receptors

94

What are the markers for NK cells?

CD16 - binds Fc of IgG
CD56- unique!

95

What is the auto antibody associated with SLE?

Antinuclear
Anti-dsDNA
anti-smith

96

Anti-CCP

RA

97

Anti histone

Drug induced lupus

98

Anti centromere

CREST syndrome
Scleroderma

99

Anti-Scl-70 (DNA topoisomerase I)

Diffuse scleroderma

100

Antimitochondrial

Primary biliary cirrhosis

101

IgA endomysial
IgA anti-transglutaminase

Celiac

102

Anti-basement membrane

Goodpasture's

103

Anti-desmoglein

Pemphigus vulgaris

104

Antimicrosomal
Antithyroglobulin

Hashimoto's

105

Anti-Jo 1
Anti-SRP
Anti- mi2

Polymyositis
Dermatomyositis

106

Anti-SSA (anti-ro)
Anti-SSA (anti-la)

Sjogren's

107

Anti-u1 RNP

Mixed CT disease

108

Anti-smooth muscle

Autoimmune hepatitis

109

Anti-glutamate decarboxylase

Type I DM

110

C-Anca

Wegener's

111

P-Anca

Microscopic polyangitis, Churg-Strauss

112

Live attenuated vaccines

Measles
Mumps
Rubella
Polio (Sabin)
Varicella
Yellow fever

113

Inactivates vaccines

Cholera
Hep A
Polio (Salk)
Rabies