Flashcards in Memorization Deck (114):
Molecule necessary for T cell activation
Breaks down fibrin, fibrinogen and degrades coag factors
Factor V Leiden
Produces a factor V resistant to degradation by protein C --> hypercoaguable states!
Spiny RBCS seen in liver disease and abetalipoproteinemia
Seen in thalassemia, anemia of chronic disease and lead poisoning
Burton's line, Ab colic, foot/wrist drop, encephalopathy
X linked for deficiency in ALA synthase
Child with megaloblastic anemia that can't be cured with b12 or folate
Mutation in uridine monophosphate
DNA repair defect - cause of aplastic anemia
X-linked, back pain and hbglobinuria
Auto recessive, decreased ATP, rigid RBCs
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Glu to Lys on B globin gene
Painful abdomen, port wine colored urine, polyneuropathy, psycho, precipitated by drugs
Acute intermittent porphyria
Accumulation of porphobilinogen, ALA, uroporphyrin
Defective porphobilinogen deaminase
Most common porphyria
Tea colored urine
Blistering cutaneous photosensitivity
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Defective uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase
Defect in GP1B
Defective platelet adhesion
Defect in GpIIa/IIIb
Deficiency of ADAMTS 13
T(11;14) , cyclin D1, CD 5+, associated with chronic inflammatory states
Mantle cell lymphoma
CML or ALL subtype
S100+, CD1a+, birbeck granules
Where does the upper body and lateral breast drain?
Axillary lymph nodes
What lymph nodes does the stomach drain to?
What lymph nodes do the duodenum, jejunum drain to?
What lymph nodes does the sigmoid colon drain to?
Colic to inferior mesenteric
Which lymph nodes does the rectum drain to?
Which lymph nodes does the anal canal drain to?
Which lymph nodes do the testes,scrotum, superficial thigh drain to?
Testes to superficial inguinal and then para aortic
Where does the lateral foot drain to?
What does the right lymphatic duct drain?
The right arm, right chest, right half of the head
Where are T cells found in the spleen?
In the periarterial lymphatic sheath within the white pulp
What are the encapsulated organisms?
Group B strep
What can be seen postsplenectomy?
Where does the thymus originate from embryologically?
The 3rd brachial pouch
What does MHC I bind?
TCR and CD8
Which cells express MHC I?
All uncleared cells
What kind of immunity does MHC I mediate?
What does MHC II bind?
TCR and CD4
Which cells express MHC II?
Which disease is associated with HLA A3?
Reiter's syndrome - conjunctivitis, urethritis, arthritis
MS, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture's
Which cytokines are NK cells activated by?
Which 2 antibodies activate complement?
IgM and IgG
Where does negative selection occur in the thymus?
Medulla - non reactive to self, the ones that are active to self undergo apoptosis
Become CD8 or CD4
What does IL-12 do?
Causes differentiation of CD4 T cell to become Th1
Activates NK CELLS
What does IL-4 do?
Causes differentiation of helper T cell to become th2
What are the costimulatory signals for naive T cell activation?
B7 and CD28
What needs to happen for B cell activation?
Presentation by B cell on MHC II to t helper
Bind CD40 to CD40L on T cell --> cytokines determine class switching needed for the antibody production
What does th1 secrete?
IFN-gamma to activate macrophage
What do macrophages secrete to activate lymphocytes?
IL-1 and TNF-a
What do th2 cells secrete?
To activate eosinophils and promote IgE production
What are th1 cells inhibited by?
IL-4 and IL-10
What are th2 cells inhibited by?
What is perforin?
Helps deliver content of granules into target cells
What is granzyme?
Activates apoptosis in target cell
What is granulysin?
Anti microbial that induces apoptosis
What markers to regulatory T cells express?
CD3, CD4, CD 25
Which cytokines do regulatory T cells secrete?
IL-10 and TGF-b - non inflammatory
What is the most abundant antibody?
What is the lowest antibody in the serum?
What defends us against gram negative bacteria?
What does C3b do?
What do C3a, C5a do?
What does C5a do?
What happens in the alternative pathway for complement activation?
C3b binds the bacterial surface
What happens in the lectin pathway?
Complement is activated by lectin or mannose or other sugars on a microbial surface
Use MBL and MASP1 and 2 to make C1 like complex that will cleave C4
What is the C3 convertase in the lectin and classic pathway?
What is the C3 convertase in the alternative pathway?
What is the C5 convertase in the classic and lectin pathway?
What is the C5 convertase in the alternative pathway?
What is the classic complement pathway activated by?
IgM and IgG antigen-antibody complexes
What is the function of IL-1?
Activates endothelium to express adhesion molecules
Induces chemokine secretion
What is the function of IL-2?
Stimulates T cells
What is the function of IL-3?
Stimulates BM stem cells
What is the function of IL-4?
Stimulates IgE production and IgG
Stimulates differentiation in Th2
What is the function of IL-5?
Stimulates IgA production and eosinophils
What is the function of IL-8?
What is the function of IL-12?
Induces differentiation of Th1 cells
Activates NK cells
What is the function of TNF-a?
Mediates septic shock - causes vascular leakage and leukocytes recruitment
Also responsible for cachexia in cancer
What is the function of INF-a?
Activates macrophages and Th1 cells
Increasing MHC I and II presentation of all cells
Increasing antigen presentation in all cells
What is the function of IL-10?
Inhibit activated T cells
What is the function of interferon a and b?
Inhibiting viral protein synthesis by induction of ribonuclease that inhibits viral protein synthesis by degrading viral mRNA
What are the B cell markers?
CD19, 20, 21
What is the B cell marker used by EBV?
What are the markers for macrophages?
What are the markers for NK cells?
CD16 - binds Fc of IgG
What is the auto antibody associated with SLE?
Drug induced lupus
Anti-Scl-70 (DNA topoisomerase I)
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Mixed CT disease
Type I DM
Microscopic polyangitis, Churg-Strauss
Live attenuated vaccines