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Flashcards in Memory Deck (11):

What are the 4 components of the cognitive interview?

1) Mental reinstatement of original context (cues)
2) Report everything (cues other memories)
3) Change order (prevents schemas)
4) Change perspective (prevents schemas)


Give two evaluations of the cognitive interview

•Effective: 34% more correct information generated compared to standard interviewing techniques
•Police don't have time for it, so it's use is not widespread


Describe one study that showed anxiety has a negative effect on accuracy

Johnson and Scott
•Participants heard an argument from next room
•Then saw man carrying either greasy pen or bloody knife
•Later asked to identify man from photographs
•Mean accuracy 49% in pen condition, 33% in knife condition


Describe one study that showed anxiety has a positive effect on accuracy

Christianson and Hubinette
•Witnesses to bank robberies in Sweden
•Either victims or bystanders
•The most anxious victims had the best recall


What is the Yerkes-Dodson effect?

The observation that very low and very high anxiety has a negative effect on performance, but moderate levels are beneficial


Give two evaluations of the study by Christianson and Hubinette

•Real life rather than lab, so had the context of a real crime
•No simple conclusion- victims of violent crimes more accurate in recall


Describe Loftus and Palmer's study into the accuracy of eyewitness testimony

•Shown films of traffic accidents
•Smashed, hit, collided, bumped, contacted
•Mean speed smashed 40.8, contacted 31.8
•Later asked if they saw broken glass
•Leading question changed memory of event


Describe one study into post-event discussion

Fiona Gabbert
•Put in pairs where each partner had watched a different video
•Discussed event, then recalled individually what they saw
•71% mistakenly recalled items acquired during the discussion


Give 2 evaluations of the accuracy of eyewitness testimony

•RPs didn't see real traffic accident, lacks mundane realism and accuracy
•Real-world applications- changed the justice system


What are the 3 types of long-term memory?

Episodic- personal memories
Semantic- general knowledge
Procedural- how to do things


Give one evaluation of the types of long-term memory

•HM's hippocampus was destroyed, but he kept his LTM. He could form new procedural memories (learned mirror-drawing) but not episodic or semantic ones.