Flashcards in Memory Deck (66):
What is Capacity?
How much information can be held in a memory store
What is the capacity of short term memory?
What is the capacity of long term memory?
What is Duration?
The length in which memory can be held
What is the Duration of short term memory?
18 - 30 seconds
What is the Duration of long term memory?
Up to a lifetime
What is Coding?
Writing information to memory in the form of the 5 senses
What type of memory coding is in short term memory?
What type of memory coding is in long term memory?
Semantically (Similar things)
What is Memory?
A Permininant physical change where information is stored in the min
Advantages of memory
- Allows us to learn and improve
- We don't have to relearn every time we do it
Multistore Model of Memory
World Info -> Sensory Store (attention) -> STM (Rehersal) ->LTM (transfer/retriavl)
What happens at each stage in the MMM
Memory is lost through decay
Who created the MMM
Atkinson and Sehiffrin
information of the sense is held, capacity is large, very brief duration
if attention is focused on sensory stores data is transferred to STM if more attention and rehearsal it goes to LTM
What is STM?
Short term memory - memory for immediate tasks.
Repetition moves STM to LTM
What is LTM?
Long Term Memory- memory stored forever.
Potentially unlimited duration
potentially unlimited capacity
The process of getting information from LTM- involves it passing back through STM
Strengths of MSM
- supporting evidence
- many case studies supporitng
Limitations of MSM
- too simplistic
- LTM involves more than just maintenance rehearsal
Working Memory Model
Central Executive---> episodic buffer, phonoplogical loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad ----> LTM
To direct attention to particular tasks. Directs the 3 slave system resources to particular tasks.
Limited capacity, deals with auditory information and preserves the order of information.
What does the phonological loop divide into?
Phonological store - holds words you hear
Articulatory Process - holds words which can be heard OR seen (inner ear). These words a repeated in your head (rehearsal) Inner voice
Used to plan a space visual task like getting from one room to another or counting a number of windows in a house
What can the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad be divided into
Visual Cache - stores information about visual items e.g. color
Inner Scribe - Stores arrangement of objects in your visual field e.g. where they are placed in relation to each other
A general store for the other 2 slave systems
What is stored in LTM in the Working Memory Model
Language (Stores symbols and words that trigger memories), Visual Semantics (Visual meanings that trigger memories), Short term
Strengths of the Working Memory model
- Dual Task Performance supports existence of central executive
- Evidence from brain-damaged patients
Limitations of Working Memory model
- The central executive has not been physically found in the brain
- Problems with that the majority of evidence comes from brain-damaged patients, brain-damage is traumatic and thus could skew any results
Dual Task Performance
- Working memory model means we can use two different slave systems at once but due to capacity cannot use the same one for two different tasks
Memory in event sequence
Memory in relation to things
Memory of how you do something
Different types of memory evidence
- Brain scans, different parts light up in different memory
- Brain Damage case studies (Corkin 2002, Shallice and Warrington 1970) can use some types of memory but not others suggesting distinction
One memory disrupting the ability to recall other results in forgetting
Past learning effects current learning (Tennis player learning to play badminton
Current attempts to learn effect old memories (Learning French, then learn Spanish, forget french)
- Research is lab-based so not ecologically valid
- Interference only explains some situations of forgetting (They don't occur often)
Forgetting due to absence of cues
Encoding Specificity Principle
Memory is most effective if information was present at time of encoding is also present at time of retrieval
Cues are environmental e.g. place, smell, sounds
Cues are internal e.g. feeling, mood, intoxication/drugs
When is interference more likely?
When learning is similar
What is a cue?
Things that serve as a reminder to 'jog' memory
Evaluation of Retrieval Failure
- There is a lot of research support
- Real-world application: to improve recall e.g. for exams
- However, retrieval cues don't always work, information you want to learn will be more complex than what cues you have
A legal term to describe someone who has witnessed a crime and will help to identify a criminal
A question, either by its wording or its context leads the witness to answer what is desired
Eyewitness Testimony three stages
1. witness encodes details of the crime in LTM (encoding might be partial or disorientated)
2. witness retains information for long periods of time
3. Witness retrieves memory from LTM (absence of retrieval cues will effect this)
Eyewitness testimony evaluation
- Supporting evidence (Loftus and Palmer)
- EWT in life might not relate to evidence however as participants in studies do not feel the emotional complexity as if you were involved in the crime
- Real-world applications, criminal justice system relies on EWT
An unpleasant emotional state of worry/stress
Anxiety negative effect on accuracy
Extreme anxiety negatively effects memory and performance accuracy because stress reduces cognitive function
Anxiety positively effect on accuracy
Anxiety could be adaptive to remember events that are emotionally important
Anxiety accuracy evaluation
- Weapon focus effect may not be caused by anxiety due to that the effect could just be surprised of seeing a weapon
- Real life versus lab studies, lab studies cannot recreate actual real life
1. Mental reinstatement of original context
2. Report everything
3. Change order
4. Change perspective
Mental reinstatement of original context
Recreate all context at crime, if it be emotional or the physical environment to trigger memories
Tell the whole story of the crime from start to finish without being interrupted to trigger memories
Try alternative orders of the timeline, getting the person to start at the end to trigger memories
Recall the incident from multiple perspectives to trigger memories
Evaluation of cognitive interview
- Research into the effectiveness of cognitive interview, has proven through meta-analysis that cognitive interview increases correct answers
- When: 1887
- Aim: To investigate the capacity of STM
- Procedure: Gave participants an increasing digit span of numbers and asked them to recall them
- Results: Capacity was 7±2 items
- Chunk size is what matters e.g. a word vs 4 letters
- Individual differences
Peterson and Peterson
- When: 1959
- Aim: To investigate the duration of STM
- Procedure: Gave participants Triagrams (e.g. 321 TGR) and were asked to recall in retention intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and during the retention intervals had to count backwards from the 3 digit number in the Trigram to stop any rehearsal
- Results: participants were 90% correct at three but 2% at 18 suggesting the duration of STM was 18-30 seconds
- Not ecologically valid
- Displacement of counting backwards may have altered results
Harry Bahrick et al
- When: 1975
- Aim: To investigate the duration of LTM
- Procedure: 400 people aged 17-74 asked to recall photos and names out of their yearbook
- Results: 15 years were 90% accurate but 48 years were 30% accurate