Memory Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (66):
1

What is Capacity?

How much information can be held in a memory store

2

What is the capacity of short term memory?

7±2

3

What is the capacity of long term memory?

Limitless

4

What is Duration?

The length in which memory can be held

5

What is the Duration of short term memory?

18 - 30 seconds

6

What is the Duration of long term memory?

Up to a lifetime

7

What is Coding?

Writing information to memory in the form of the 5 senses

8

What type of memory coding is in short term memory?

acoustic (Sound)

9

What type of memory coding is in long term memory?

Semantically (Similar things)

10

What is Memory?

A Permininant physical change where information is stored in the min

11

Advantages of memory

- Fast
- Allows us to learn and improve
- We don't have to relearn every time we do it

12

Multistore Model of Memory

World Info -> Sensory Store (attention) -> STM (Rehersal) ->LTM (transfer/retriavl)

13

What happens at each stage in the MMM

Memory is lost through decay

14

Who created the MMM

Atkinson and Sehiffrin

15

Sensory register

information of the sense is held, capacity is large, very brief duration

16

Attention

if attention is focused on sensory stores data is transferred to STM if more attention and rehearsal it goes to LTM

17

What is STM?

Short term memory - memory for immediate tasks.

Short duration
Limited Capacity

18

Maintenance Rehearsal

Repetition moves STM to LTM

19

What is LTM?

Long Term Memory- memory stored forever.

Potentially unlimited duration
potentially unlimited capacity

20

Retrieval

The process of getting information from LTM- involves it passing back through STM

21

Strengths of MSM

- supporting evidence
- many case studies supporitng

22

Limitations of MSM

- too simplistic
- LTM involves more than just maintenance rehearsal

23

Working Memory Model

Central Executive---> episodic buffer, phonoplogical loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad ----> LTM

24

Central Executive

To direct attention to particular tasks. Directs the 3 slave system resources to particular tasks.

25

Phonological Loop

Limited capacity, deals with auditory information and preserves the order of information.

26

What does the phonological loop divide into?

Phonological store - holds words you hear
Articulatory Process - holds words which can be heard OR seen (inner ear). These words a repeated in your head (rehearsal) Inner voice

27

Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

Used to plan a space visual task like getting from one room to another or counting a number of windows in a house

28

What can the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad be divided into

Visual Cache - stores information about visual items e.g. color
Inner Scribe - Stores arrangement of objects in your visual field e.g. where they are placed in relation to each other

29

Episodic Buffer

A general store for the other 2 slave systems

30

What is stored in LTM in the Working Memory Model

Language (Stores symbols and words that trigger memories), Visual Semantics (Visual meanings that trigger memories), Short term

31

Strengths of the Working Memory model

- Dual Task Performance supports existence of central executive
- Evidence from brain-damaged patients

32

Limitations of Working Memory model

- The central executive has not been physically found in the brain
- Problems with that the majority of evidence comes from brain-damaged patients, brain-damage is traumatic and thus could skew any results

33

Dual Task Performance

- Working memory model means we can use two different slave systems at once but due to capacity cannot use the same one for two different tasks

34

Episodic Memory

Memory in event sequence

35

Semantic Memory

Memory in relation to things

36

Procedural Memory

Memory of how you do something

37

Different types of memory evidence

- Brain scans, different parts light up in different memory
- Brain Damage case studies (Corkin 2002, Shallice and Warrington 1970) can use some types of memory but not others suggesting distinction

38

Interference

One memory disrupting the ability to recall other results in forgetting

39

Proactive interference

Past learning effects current learning (Tennis player learning to play badminton

40

Retroactive interference

Current attempts to learn effect old memories (Learning French, then learn Spanish, forget french)

41

Interference evaluation

- Research is lab-based so not ecologically valid
- Interference only explains some situations of forgetting (They don't occur often)

42

Retrieval Failure

Forgetting due to absence of cues

43

Encoding Specificity Principle

Memory is most effective if information was present at time of encoding is also present at time of retrieval

44

Context-Dependant Forgetting

Cues are environmental e.g. place, smell, sounds

45

State-Dependant Forgetting

Cues are internal e.g. feeling, mood, intoxication/drugs

46

When is interference more likely?

When learning is similar

47

What is a cue?

Things that serve as a reminder to 'jog' memory

48

Evaluation of Retrieval Failure

- There is a lot of research support
- Real-world application: to improve recall e.g. for exams

- However, retrieval cues don't always work, information you want to learn will be more complex than what cues you have

49

Eyewitness Testimony

A legal term to describe someone who has witnessed a crime and will help to identify a criminal

50

Leading Question

A question, either by its wording or its context leads the witness to answer what is desired

51

Eyewitness Testimony three stages

1. witness encodes details of the crime in LTM (encoding might be partial or disorientated)

2. witness retains information for long periods of time
(Can forget)

3. Witness retrieves memory from LTM (absence of retrieval cues will effect this)

52

Eyewitness testimony evaluation

- Supporting evidence (Loftus and Palmer)

- EWT in life might not relate to evidence however as participants in studies do not feel the emotional complexity as if you were involved in the crime

- Real-world applications, criminal justice system relies on EWT

53

Anxiety

An unpleasant emotional state of worry/stress

54

Anxiety negative effect on accuracy

Extreme anxiety negatively effects memory and performance accuracy because stress reduces cognitive function

55

Anxiety positively effect on accuracy

Anxiety could be adaptive to remember events that are emotionally important

56

Anxiety accuracy evaluation

- Weapon focus effect may not be caused by anxiety due to that the effect could just be surprised of seeing a weapon

- Real life versus lab studies, lab studies cannot recreate actual real life

57

Cognitive Interview

1. Mental reinstatement of original context

2. Report everything

3. Change order

4. Change perspective

58

Mental reinstatement of original context

Recreate all context at crime, if it be emotional or the physical environment to trigger memories

59

Report Everything

Tell the whole story of the crime from start to finish without being interrupted to trigger memories

60

Change order

Try alternative orders of the timeline, getting the person to start at the end to trigger memories

61

Change perspective

Recall the incident from multiple perspectives to trigger memories

62

Evaluation of cognitive interview

- Research into the effectiveness of cognitive interview, has proven through meta-analysis that cognitive interview increases correct answers

63

Joseph Jacob

- When: 1887

- Aim: To investigate the capacity of STM

- Procedure: Gave participants an increasing digit span of numbers and asked them to recall them

- Results: Capacity was 7±2 items

- Evaluation:

- Chunk size is what matters e.g. a word vs 4 letters
- Individual differences

64

Peterson and Peterson

- When: 1959

- Aim: To investigate the duration of STM

- Procedure: Gave participants Triagrams (e.g. 321 TGR) and were asked to recall in retention intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and during the retention intervals had to count backwards from the 3 digit number in the Trigram to stop any rehearsal

- Results: participants were 90% correct at three but 2% at 18 suggesting the duration of STM was 18-30 seconds

- Evaluation

- Not ecologically valid
- Displacement of counting backwards may have altered results

65

Harry Bahrick et al

- When: 1975

- Aim: To investigate the duration of LTM

- Procedure: 400 people aged 17-74 asked to recall photos and names out of their yearbook

- Results: 15 years were 90% accurate but 48 years were 30% accurate

66

Baddley coding study

- When: 1966

- Aim: To investigate coding of memory

- Procedure: Used a list of words that sound the same but are different (Cat, Cab) and a list of words that sound different but mean similar things (great, large) and asked participants to memorize lists

- Results: Semantically different words memorised better in LTM. Acoustically different in STM. This means LTM is mainly semantic and STM is mainly acoustic

- Evaluation:

- He may have not even tested LTM at all
- A memory store might not be exclusively one type (Bradimote 1992 found visual tasks store well in STM)