Flashcards in meningitis Deck (15):
triad of symptoms for meningitis?
Headache, fever, neck stiffness
what are the main organisms that cause bacterial meningitis?
S. pneumoniae, N meningitidis, L. monocytogenes, S. agalacticae, E.coli, sometimes H. influenzae type B
what are other symptoms of meningitis?
how is bacterial meningitis usually precipitated?
usually colonisation of bacteria at the back of the throat--> spreading to the meninges.
viral meningitis pathogens?
why is important to establish whether a patient with meningitis has had a splenectomy?
spleen is important in defending against capsulated pathogens like n. meningitis and s. pneumoniae. if there has been a splenectomy- the patient is more vulnerable to bacterial meningitis
what do we look for during examination?
petechial rash (non blanching spots)
Kerning's sign- Severe stiffness of the hamstrings causes an inability to straighten the leg when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees.
how do we diagnose meningitis?
LP- look at the CSF to see whether its turbid/cloudy. Then do a CSF analysis to look for number of polymorph cells, lymphocytes, glucose level, RBC and protein level.
empirical treatment for suspected bacterial meningitis?
antibiotics- ceftriaxone/penicillin + dexamethasone ASAP
what are the constituents of the CSF in bacterial meningitis?
polymorphs, high protein, low glucose
what are the constituents of the CSF in viral meningitis?
lymphocytes present but glucose and protein normal
what are the constituents of the CSF in TB meningitis?
lymphocytes present (higher number than viral), very high protein, very low glucose
how lymphocytes and PMN in normal CSF?
2 lymphocytes and no PMN
what are some causes of aseptic meningitis? i.e. you don't culture any organism from the CSF
-partially treated bacterial meningitis