Mesoamerica Flashcards Preview

9H WH > Mesoamerica > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mesoamerica Deck (39):
1

How does religion dictate action

- Mayan king regarded as holy figure
- Mayan cities dedicated to gods with elaborate stone carvings
- Human sacrifice to keep balance and avoid natural disasters

2

How is power gained, used, and challenged

- Priests and warriors made up noble class
- Aztecs started off weak but adapted to local ways
- Incas established power over large groups by using Aylin system

3

How does economic and cultural exchange impact societal development

- Mayans took Olmec influence combined with local customs
- Cities linked through trade

4

Maya Empire

Divided into city-states; supported though agriculture and trade; developed written language

5

Glyph

Hieroglyphic symbols, pictograph

6

Obsidian

Used to make sharp weapons
Hard dar volcanic rock

7

Incan Empire

Built off of conquest; Ayllu system; agricultural advancements

No written language

8

Quipu

Arrangement of knotted strings on a cord used by Inca to arrange numerical info

9

Francisco Pizarro

Conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire
Captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa and claimed the lands for Spain

10

Mestizo

A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry

11

Cacao

Chocolate; used as a currency in mesoamerican society

12

Conquistador

Spanish soldiers/explorers who took part in conquest of the Americas

13

Encomienda

Grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas

14

Machu Picchu

Incan City

Fortress high in the Andes (modern day Peru) believed to have been a royal estate or sacred religious site for Inca leaders

15

Yucatán

Part of Mayan Empire conquered by Spanish Conquiestadors

Peninsula home to both Mayan and Aztec civilization (in that orders)

16

Codex

Ancient manuscript or text in book form

17

Quetzalcoatl

One of the most important gods for Mayans and aztecs, mixture of bird and rattlesnake

18

Triple Alliance

3 City states of the Aztec civilization that banded together

19

Pachacuti

Incan Empire founder

20

Quechua

Incan language

21

Cuzco

Capital of Inca EMpire

22

Atahualpa

Son of Incan emperor, Huayna capa; received ecuador. Attempted to lay



23

Aztec Empire

Empire of ancient civilization that was very advanced for the time

Advanced education, math advancements, medical advancements, etc

24

Terraces

Levels of land built into the landscape/mountainside

Allows farmers to use more land on the mountain slopes, and to move further up the mountain than they would normally would be able to. Used by Mayan, aztecs, and inca

25

Slash and burn

Trees and cut down and let to dry for a period of time. Dry wood and grass set on fire, resulting ash adds nutrients to the soil

Used by all 3 civs

26

Pachacuti

9th inca ruler, founded empire with conquests in Cuzco valley and more

Credited with the founding of the site of Machu Picchu

27

Atahualpa

Last inca ruler, executed by pizarra in 1533, marking end of Inca empire

28

Mestizo

Person of combined European and Amerindian/Pacific Islander descent

29

Tikal

Ancient Mayan citadel in north Guatemala

30

Popul Vuh

Mayan text, translates to book of the people, includes tales, genealogy, creation myth

31

Quechua

Indigenous people of central andes, descendants of incas

32

Colony

Territory controlled by an empire

33

Encomienda

grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area

34

Cuzco

Capital of the Incan empire

35

Conquistadors

Conquerors from Spain, came to esoameirca nad South America, conquered natives and claimed land as colonies of spain (Columbus pizzaro etc)

36

Valley of Mexico

Where modern Mexico City is located, where Aztec were located

37

Tenochtitlán

Aztec capital

38

Ayllu

An Incan community or family group that worked together to reach a common goal, traditional form of community in andes

39

Montezuma II

Bad ruler who increased sacrifice, leading to a period and unrest and rebellion that the military was unable to subdue

Encountered cortes when he invaded Mexico