Metabolic and Endocrine disturbances Flashcards Preview

Year 1 EMQ revision > Metabolic and Endocrine disturbances > Flashcards

Flashcards in Metabolic and Endocrine disturbances Deck (19):
1

Hyperkalaemia

Cardiac arrhythmias ECG: tall ‘t’ waves

2

Hypokalaemia

Muscle weakness, tetany
ECG: small ‘t’ waves, prominent U wave

3

Hypocalcaemia

Carpopedal spasm, perioral anaesthesia Positive Trousseau’s, Chvostek’s sign

4

Hypercalcaemia

Many vague symptoms:
Abdominal pain, constipation, vomiting Depression
Anorexia (malignancy)
Confusion (especially elderly people) Bone pain (malignancy)
↑ incidence renal stones
ECG: reduced Q–T interval

5

Vitamin K deficiency

Prolonged bleeding

6

Vitamin C deficiency

Malnourished, bleeding gums (scurvy)

7

Vitamin D deficiency

Bowed legs (rickets)

8

Vitamin B1 deficiency

Nystagmus, othamolplegia, ataxia

9

Nicotinic Acid deficiency

Diarrhoea, dementia, dermatitis

10

Vitamin B12 deficiency

Sore red tongue
Peripheral neuropathy

11

Hyperthyroidism

Heat intolerance, weight loss, diarrhoea, anxiety

12

Hypothyroidism

Cold intolerance, weight gain, depression, constipation, dementia, depression

13

Acromegaly

Change in facial appearance, visual problems

14

Cushing's syndrome

Weight gain, menstrual problems, depression

15

What would you see on examining a patient with Addison's disease?

Buccal/palmar crease hyperpigmentation,
postural hypotension

16

What would you see on examining a patient with Cushing's disease?

‘Moon-shaped’ face, centripetal obesity,
proximal myopathy, purple striae,
hypertension, diabetes mellitus

17

What would you see on examining a patient with Acromegaly?

Macroglossia, spade-like hands and feet

18

What would you see on examining a patient with Hypothyroidism?

Bradycardia, dry thin hair, goitre, loss of
outer third of eyebrow, slowly relaxing
reflexes

19

What would you see on examining a patient with Hyperthyroidism?

Tachycardia, goitre, atrial fibrillation, lid lag