METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Antihyperlipidemic Drugs & Drugs Used In the Treatment of Gout Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Antihyperlipidemic Drugs & Drugs Used In the Treatment of Gout Deck (90):
1

Lipoprotein is

A conjugated protein having a lipid component; the principal means for transporting lipids in the blood

2

Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is

A lipoprotein containing a very large proportion of lipids to protein and carrying most cholesterol from the
liver to the tissues

3

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is

A lipoprotein that contains relatively high amounts of cholesterol and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. It is also called beta-lipoprotein

4

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is

A lipoprotein that contains relatively small amounts of cholesterol and triglycerides and is associated with a decreased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. It is also called alpha-lipoprotein

5

Chylomicron is

Large lipoprotein particle that is created by the absorptive cells of the small intestine. It transports lipids to adipose tissue where they are broken down by lipoprotein lipase

6

True or False. Hyperlipoproteinemia is a condition marked by an abnormally high level of lipoproteins in the blood.

TRUE

7

True or False. Hypertriglyceridemia denotes high blood levels of triglycerides. It has been associated with atherosclerosis, even in the absence of hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol levels)

TRUE

8

True or False. Hypercholesterolemia (or hypercholesteremia) is an abnormally high concentration of cholesterol in the blood. This

TRUE

9

True or False about type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia. Type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia marked by the increased serum concentrations of chylomicrons and triglycerides, which decrease if the diet becomes fat free, decreased concentrations of high- and low-density lipoproteins, which increase if the diet is fat free, and decreased tissue lipoprotein lipase activity

TRUE

10

True or False. Familial chylomicronemia (type I) is caused by deficiency in lipoprotein lipase activity.

TRUE

11

True or False. The Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (CPPT) demonstrated that treatment with a lipid-lowering drug could reduce the risk of death due to coronary heart disease.

TRUE

12

True or False. Women taking probucol (Lorelco) should wait for 6 months after cessation of therapy before becoming pregnant.

TRUE

13

True or False. Nicotinic acid (Niacin) plus a bile acid-binding resin has not proven effective in combating hyperlipidemia.

FALSE

14

True or False. The ideal therapy for patients with elevated levels of cholesterol would lower the serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol while raising the concentration of HDL-cholesterol.

TRUE

15

True or False. Agents, which lower levels of LDL-cholesterol, tend to promote regression of atherosclerotic plaques.

TRUE

16

True or False. Clofibrate (Atromid-S) is the drug of choice for treatment of broad-beta hyperlipidemia (type III).

FALSE

17

True or False. One advantage of gemfibrozil (Lopid) is that, in addition to lowering blood levels of most lipids, it raises the level of HDL cholesterol.

TRUE

18

True or False. Probucol (Lorelco) appears to increase clearance of LDL cholesterol by a non-receptor mediated mechanism.

TRUE

19

True or False about cholestyramine (Questran). It would not be a good choice for treating patients with familial hypertriglyceridemia (type IV)

TRUE

20

True or False about cholestyramine (Questran). It is not well tolerated by patients

TRUE

21

True or False about cholestyramine (Questran). It works by directly binding cholesterol in the blood

FALSE

22

True or False about cholestyramine (Questran). It is an effective drug for treatment of types IIa and IIb hyperlipidemia

TRUE

23

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. They work in part by increasing the rate of LDL clearance from the plasma

TRUE

24

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. They are the most effective single agents for lowering LDL-cholesterol

TRUE

25

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. When used with a bile-acid binding resin, they can lower LDL-cholesterol by 50% or more

TRUE

26

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. No special monitoring is required in patients receiving one of them

FALSE

27

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). It reduces the rate of synthesis of VLDL

TRUE

28

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). Sustained-release preparations of this drug are largely free of side effects

FALSE

29

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). Almost all patients taking the traditional dosage form of this drug experience uncomfortable flushing

TRUE

30

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). It should not be used with antihypertensives

TRUE

31

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. When used alone, they are the most effective agents for lowering LDL cholesterol

TRUE

32

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. They are often effective in patients in whom a diet, with or without a bile acid-binding resin or niacin, has failed

TRUE

33

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. Lovastatin (Mevacor) plus a resin causes regression of coronary lesions in about one third of treated patients

TRUE

34

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. Members of this drug class are generally not as well tolerated as the older bile acid-binding resins

FALSE

35

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. These drugs should not be used in pregnant women or children

TRUE

36

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. These drugs often cause myopathy if used in combination with cyclosporine (Sandimmune)

TRUE

37

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. Failure to discontinue the drug after myopathy has been detected can cause acute renal failure

TRUE

38

True or False about drugs which inhibit cholesterol synthesis. Several of these drugs tend to lengthen the sleep cycle

FALSE

39

True or False about the fibric acid derivatives. Clofibrate (Atromid-S) is the drug of choice for therapy of Type III hyperlipidemia

FALSE

40

True or False about the fibric acid derivatives. Gemfibrozil (Lopid) increases HDL cholesterol while lowering LDL cholesterol

TRUE

41

True or False about the fibric acid derivatives. Gemfibrozil (Lopid) has been shown to reduce mortality associated with a heart disease

TRUE

42

True or False about the fibric acid derivatives. Gemfibrozil (Lopid) is generally well tolerated

TRUE

43

True or False about the bile acid-binding resins. They decrease total cholesterol and LDL

TRUE

44

True or False about the bile acid-binding resins. They are contraindicated in patients with hypertriglyceridemia

TRUE

45

True or False about the bile acid-binding resins. When used alone, they do not slow the progression of atherosclerotic lesions

FALSE

46

True or False about the bile acid-binding resins. They are the drugs of choice for therapy of type II hyperlipidemia when used either alone or in combination with selected agents

TRUE

47

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). Both triglycerides and LDL cholesterol are reduced by this drug

TRUE

48

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). The drug acts by directly decreasing the rate of synthesis of apoproteins

FALSE

49

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). Doses higher than 3 gm/day are no longer used because of possible disturbances of hepatic or pancreatic functions

TRUE

50

True or False about nicotinic acid (Niacin). Most patients taking this drug experience uncomfortable cutaneous flushing, itching, and/or rashes

TRUE

51

True or False about the general principles of therapy with lipid-lowering drugs. Therapy with a lipid-lowering drug should be always accompanied by an appropriate diet

TRUE

52

True or False about the general principles of therapy with lipid-lowering drugs. A lipid-lowering diet should be discontinued if it fails to decrease the levels of plasma LDL cholesterol by at least 10%

FALSE

53

True or False about the general principles of therapy with lipid-lowering drugs. Lipid-lowering drugs should only be administered after at least 3 months of prior dietary therapy

TRUE

54

True or False about the general principles of therapy with lipid-lowering drugs. Some combinations of lipid-lowering drugs are synergistic

TRUE

55

True or False. The cholesterol synthesis inhibitors increase the rate of clearance of LDL cholesterol from the plasma.

TRUE

56

True or False. Lovastatin (Mevacor) plus a bile-acid binding resin causes regression of coronary lesions in about one third of treated patients.

TRUE

57

True or False. The cholesterol synthesis inhibitors are better tolerated than most other lipid-lowering agents.

TRUE

58

True or False. Selected liver and muscle enzymes should be monitored during the use of any cholesterol synthesis inhibitors because of possible toxic effects.

TRUE

59

True or False. The bile acid-binding resins act by directly binding cholesterol and facilitating its excretion.

FALSE

60

True or False. Nicotinic acid (Niacin) acts by increasing the rate of catabolism of VLDL.

FALSE

61

True or False. Gemfibrozil (Lopid) can cause dizziness and syncope when used with antihypertensives.

FALSE

62

True or False. Gemfibrozil (Lopid) increases concentrations of HDL cholesterol more than clofibrate (Atromid-S).

TRUE

63

True or False. The bile acid-binding resins can bind many drugs and vitamins and reduce their absorption.

TRUE

64

True or False. When used alone, the bile acid-binding resins are contraindicated in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

TRUE

65

True or False. Combinations of lipid-lowering drugs are likely to be synergistic if they work at different steps in the same pathway.

TRUE

66

True or False. Reduction in plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations with gemfibrozil treatment is greater than reduction in plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations with gemfibrozil treatment.

TRUE

67

True or False. Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (type IIa) lack any functional LDL receptors on their hepatocytes.

TRUE

68

True or False. Effects of drugs in lowering blood cholesterol levels are additive with those of diet.

TRUE

69

True or False. HMG-CoA reductase inhibiting drugs can cause muscle breakdown, especially when used in combination with a cyclosporine.

TRUE

70

True or False. Probucol (Lorelco) reduces the risk of atherosclerosis by stimulating the rate of clearance of LDL by receptor-mediated pathways.

FALSE

71

True or False. Clofibrate (Atromid-S) is generally regarded as superior to gemfibrozil.

FALSE

72

True or False. Niacin’s most common side effects can be reduced by pretreatment with aspirin and/or by taking the drug at the end of meals.

TRUE

73

True or False. The major side effect of cholestyramine is hepatotoxicity.

FALSE

74

True or False. The statins are dependent on the presence of LDL receptors on hepatocytes in order to exert their effect.

FALSE

75

This drug increases lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in adipose tissue

Gemfibrozil (Loprol)

76

This drug both inhibits an enzyme and indirectly enhances clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL)

Lovastatin (Mevacor)

77

This drug binds bile acids in the GI tract

Cholestyramine (Questran)

78

This drug may block oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL)

Probucol (Lorelco)

79

This drug weakly stimulates synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)

Cholestyramine (Questran)

80

Flushing caused by this drug can be reduced by taking it after meals and/or by pretreatment with aspirin

Nicotinic acid (niacin)

81

This drug can cause muscle damage, especially when used with any of several drugs including erythromycin

Lovastatin (Mevacor)

82

This drug decreases blood levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL)

Probucol (Lorelco)

83

This fibric acid derivative increases blood levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL):

Gemfibrozil (Loprol)

84

True or False. Gout is a familial metabolic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of acute arthritis due to deposits of monosodium urate in joints and cartilage.

TRUE

85

True or False. Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone are uricosuric drugs employed to decrease the body pool of urate in patients with tophaceous gout or in those with increasingly frequent gouty attacks.

TRUE

86

Which drugs is an uricosuric agent

Sulfinpyrazone

87

Uricosuric drugs are

- Probenecid
- Sulfinpyrazone
- Aspirin (at high dosages)

88

Which drugs used in the treatment of gout acts by preventing the migration of granulocytes

Colchicine

89

Which drugs used in the treatment of gout has as its primary effect the reduction of uric acid synthesis

Allopurinol

90

Characteristics of probenecid include

- It is useful in the treatment of gout
- At appropriate doses, it promotes the excretion of uric acid
- The metabolic products of probenecid are uricosuric

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