METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Glucocorticoid, Steroidal & Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Glucocorticoid, Steroidal & Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Glucocorticoid, Steroidal & Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Deck (53):
1

Glucocorticoids are hormonal steroids

Having an important effect on intermediary metabolism, cardiovascular function, growth, and immunity

2

Inflammation is

A localized protective reaction of a tissue to irritation, injury, or infection, characterized by pain, redness,
swelling, and sometimes loss of function

3

An acute, transient phase, of inflammation is characterized by

Local vasodilatation and increased capillary permeability (phase of damage)

4

A delayed, subacute phase, of inflammation is characterized by

Infiltration of leucocytes and phagocytic cells (phase of exudation)

5

A chronic, proliferative phase, of inflammation is characterized by

Tissue degeneration and fibrosis occurrence (phase of proliferation)

6

The following substances are considered to be referred to as eicosanoids

- Prostaglandins
- Leukotrienes
- Thromboxanes

7

True or False about cortisol (hydrocortisone). Cortisol is synthesized from cholesterol

TRUE

8

True or False about cortisol (hydrocortisone). ACTH governs cortisol secretion

TRUE

9

True or False about cortisol (hydrocortisone). Most cortisol is inactivated in the liver

TRUE

10

True or False about cortisol (hydrocortisone). The half-life of cortisol in the circulations is normally about 60-90 hours.

FALSE

11

True or False about glucocorticoids. Effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors that are members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors.

TRUE

12

True or False about glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have dose-related metabolic effects on carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.

TRUE

13

True or False about glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have pro-inflammatory effects.

FALSE

14

True or False about glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have catabolic effects in lymphoid and connective tissue, muscle, fat, and skin.

TRUE

15

Physiologic doses of glucocorticoid can result in

- Increased liver glycogen stores, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis
- Maintenance of cardiovascular function (by potentiation of norepinephrine) and skeletal muscle function
- Increased hemoglobin synthesis, resulting in elevated of red blood cell count

16

Which glucocorticoids is a short- to medium-acting drug?

Prednisolon

17

Which glucocorticoids is an intermediate-acting drug?

Triamcinolone

18

Which glucocorticoids is a long-acting drug?

Dexamethasone

19

Which glucocorticoids have one fluoride atom in its chemical structure?

Triamcinolone

20

Which glucocorticoids have two fluoride atoms in its chemical structure?

Fluocinolone

21

Which glucocorticoids has no fluoride atoms in its chemical structure?

Prednisolon

22

Anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids is caused by

- Reducing the prostaglandin and leukotriene which results from inhibition of phospholipase A2
- Reducing macrophages migration into the site of inflammation
- Decreasing capillary permeability

23

True or False about anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids. Anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids results from inhibition of cyclooxygenase

FALSE

24

True or False about anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids. Anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids results from inhibition of phospholipase A2 and reducing prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis

TRUE

25

True or False about anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids. Induction of cyclooxygenase II expression which results in reducing amount of an enzyme available to produce prostoglandins

FALSE

26

Immunosupressive effect of glucocorticoids is caused by

Reducing concentration of lymphocytes (T and B cells) and inhibiting function of tissue macrophages and
other antigen-presenting cells

27

True or False about anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs. Anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs results from inhibition of cyclooxygenase

TRUE

28

True or False about anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs. Anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs results from inhibition of phospholipase A2 and reducing prostaglandin and
leukotriene synthesis

FALSE

29

True or False about anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs. Anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs results from induction of cyclooxygenase II expression which results in reducing
the amount of an enzyme available to produce prostoglandins

FALSE

30

Indication of glucocorticoids is

- Chronic (Addison’s disease) and acute adrenocortical insufficiency
- Organ transplants (prevention and treatment of rejection – immunosuppression)
- Inflammatory conditions of bones and joints (arthritis, bursitis, tenosynovitis).

31

Indications of glucocorticoids are

- Gastrointestinal diseases (inflammatory bowel disease)
- Inflammatory conditions of bones and joints (arthritis, bursitis, tenosynovitis)
- Skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, dermatoses, localized neurodermatitis)

32

Serious side effects of glucocorticoids include

- Acute peptic ulcers
- Iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome (rounding, puffiness, fat deposition and plethora alter the appearance of the face – moon faces)
- Hypomania or acute psychosis

33

Serious side effects of glucocorticoids include

- Adrenal suppression
- Insomnia, behavioral changes (primarily hypomania)
- Rounding, puffiness, fat deposition and plethora alter the appearance of the face – moon faces

34

True or False. Selective COX-2 inhibitors are safer than nonselective COX-1 inhibitors but without loss of efficacy.

TRUE

35

True or False. The constitutive COX-2 isoform tends to be homeostatic in function, while COX-1 is induced during inflammation and tends to facilitate the inflammatory response.

FALSE

36

Which property combinations is peculiar to the majority of NSAIDs?

Antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory

37

Which NSAIDs is a propionic acid derivative?

Ibuprofen

38

Which NSAIDs is an indol derivative?

Indomethacin

39

Which NSAIDs is a pyrazolone derivative?

Metamizole (Analgin)

40

Which NSAIDs is a fenamate derivative?

Meclofenamic acid

41

Which NSAIDs is an oxicam derivative?

Piroxicam

42

Which NSAIDs is a selective COX-2 inhibitor?

Celecoxib

43

Which NSAIDs is a nonselective COX inhibitor

Piroxicam

44

True or False. Aspirin inhibits phospholipase A2

TRUE

45

Indication for aspirin administration are

- Inflammatory conditions
- Decreasing the incidence of transient ischemic attack, unstable angina, coronary artery thrombosis with myocardial infarction, and thrombosis after coronary artery bypass grafting
- Reducing elevated body temperature

46

Side effects of aspirin include

- Gastric upset (intolerance)
- Salicylism (vomiting, tinnitus, decreased hearing, and vertigo)
- Gastric ulcers and upper gastrointestinal bleeding

47

Serious side effects of metamizole (analgin) include

Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia

48

Side effects of indometacin include

- Abdominal pain, diarrhea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and pancreatitis
- Dizziness, confusion and depression
- Trombocytopenia

49

True or False. Ketoprofen is a propionic acid derivative that inhibits both cyclooxygenase (nonselectively) and lipoxygenase.

TRUE

50

True or False. Ketorolac is an NSAID that is promoted for systemic use as an anti-inflammatory, not as an analgesic drug.

FALSE

51

Which drugs is a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOG) inhibitor?

Zileuton (Zyflo)

52

Which drugs is a leucotreine D4 receptor (LTD4) blocker?

Zafirleukast (Accolate)

53

Which drugs is a thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2) antagonist?

Sulotroban

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