METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Pancreatic Hormones & Antidiabetic Drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Pancreatic Hormones & Antidiabetic Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Pancreatic Hormones & Antidiabetic Drugs Deck (36):
1

Secretory products of pancreatic β-cells are

Insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP)

2

Insulin is

A small protein with a molecular weight of 5808 having disulphide linkage

3

Insulin is a polypeptide hence

It is destroyed by gastric juice

4

True or False. Bovine insulin is less antigenic than porcine.

FALSE

5

Insulin causes reduction in blood sugar level by the following mechanisms

- Increased glucose uptake in the peripheral tissue
- Reduction of breakdown of glycogen
- Diminished gluconeogenesis

6

True or False about glucagon. Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver

TRUE

7

Insulin can not be administered by

Oral route

8

Sources of human insulin production are

Recombinant DNA techniques by inserting the proinsulin gene into E. coli or yeast

9

The primary reason for a physician to prescribe human insulin is that

It can be given to patients who have an allergy to animal insulins

10

True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It can serve as replacement therapy for juvenile-onset diabetes

TRUE

11

True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It can be administered intravenously

TRUE

12

True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It is a short-acting insulin

TRUE

13

True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It can be administered orally

FALSE

14

Diabetic coma is treated by the administration of

Crystalline insulin

15

Sulphonylureas act by

Stimulating the beta islet cells of pancreas to produce insulin

16

True or False. Sulphonylureas are effective in totally insulin deficient patients.

FALSE

17

Currently used second-generation sulfonylureas include

- Glyburide (Glibenclamide)
- Glipizide (Glydiazinamide)
- Glimepiride (Amaril)

18

Currently used oral hypoglycemic thiazolidinediones include

- Pioglitazone (Actos)
- Rosiglitazone (Avandia)

19

Thiazolidinediones act by

Diminishing insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake and metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues

20

Currently used alpha-glucosidase inhibitors include

- Acarbose (Precose)
- Miglitol (Glyset)
- All of the above

21

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors act by

Competitive inhibiting of intestinal alpha-ghucosidases and modulating the postprandial digestion and absorption of starch and disaccharides

22

Potency of action of

Miglitol is six times higher than that of acarbose

23

Which oral hypoglycaemic drugs stimulates both synthesis and release of insulin from beta islet cells

Glibenclamide

24

Currently used oral hypoglycemic biguanides include

- Repaglinide (Prandin)
- Metformin
- Phenformine

25

The action of insulin is potentiated by

Biguanides

26

Duration of action of

Chlorpropamide is more than that of tolbutamide

27

True or False. Side effects of sulphonylureas are less than those of biguanides.

TRUE

28

Biguanides are used in

In case of hyperglycemic shock

29

Which agents is/are important hormonal antagonists of insulin in the body?

- Glucagon
- Adrenal steroids
- Adrenaline

30

Glucagon is

A peptide – identical in all mammals – consisting of a single chain of 29 amino acids.

31

True or False. Glucagon is synthesized in the A cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans.

TRUE

32

True or False. Glucagon is a peptide – identical in all mammals – consisting of a single chain of 29 amino acids

TRUE

33

True or False. Glucagon is extensively degraded in the liver and kidney as well as in plasma, and at its tissue receptor sites.

TRUE

34

True or False. Half-life of glucagon is between 6 and 8 hours, which is similar to that of insulin.

FALSE

35

Glucagon can be used in

- Severe hypoglycemia
- Endocrine diagnosis
- Beta-blocker poisoning

36

Main complications of insulin therapy include

- Hypoglycemia
- Insulin allergy
- Lipodystrophy at an injection site

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