Flashcards in METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Pancreatic Hormones & Antidiabetic Drugs Deck (36):
Secretory products of pancreatic β-cells are
Insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP)
A small protein with a molecular weight of 5808 having disulphide linkage
Insulin is a polypeptide hence
It is destroyed by gastric juice
True or False. Bovine insulin is less antigenic than porcine.
Insulin causes reduction in blood sugar level by the following mechanisms
- Increased glucose uptake in the peripheral tissue
- Reduction of breakdown of glycogen
- Diminished gluconeogenesis
True or False about glucagon. Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver
Insulin can not be administered by
Sources of human insulin production are
Recombinant DNA techniques by inserting the proinsulin gene into E. coli or yeast
The primary reason for a physician to prescribe human insulin is that
It can be given to patients who have an allergy to animal insulins
True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It can serve as replacement therapy for juvenile-onset diabetes
True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It can be administered intravenously
True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It is a short-acting insulin
True or False about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin. It can be administered orally
Diabetic coma is treated by the administration of
Sulphonylureas act by
Stimulating the beta islet cells of pancreas to produce insulin
True or False. Sulphonylureas are effective in totally insulin deficient patients.
Currently used second-generation sulfonylureas include
- Glyburide (Glibenclamide)
- Glipizide (Glydiazinamide)
- Glimepiride (Amaril)
Currently used oral hypoglycemic thiazolidinediones include
- Pioglitazone (Actos)
- Rosiglitazone (Avandia)
Thiazolidinediones act by
Diminishing insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake and metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues
Currently used alpha-glucosidase inhibitors include
- Acarbose (Precose)
- Miglitol (Glyset)
- All of the above
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors act by
Competitive inhibiting of intestinal alpha-ghucosidases and modulating the postprandial digestion and absorption of starch and disaccharides
Potency of action of
Miglitol is six times higher than that of acarbose
Which oral hypoglycaemic drugs stimulates both synthesis and release of insulin from beta islet cells
Currently used oral hypoglycemic biguanides include
- Repaglinide (Prandin)
The action of insulin is potentiated by
Duration of action of
Chlorpropamide is more than that of tolbutamide
True or False. Side effects of sulphonylureas are less than those of biguanides.
Biguanides are used in
In case of hyperglycemic shock
Which agents is/are important hormonal antagonists of insulin in the body?
- Adrenal steroids
A peptide – identical in all mammals – consisting of a single chain of 29 amino acids.
True or False. Glucagon is synthesized in the A cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans.
True or False. Glucagon is a peptide – identical in all mammals – consisting of a single chain of 29 amino acids
True or False. Glucagon is extensively degraded in the liver and kidney as well as in plasma, and at its tissue receptor sites.
True or False. Half-life of glucagon is between 6 and 8 hours, which is similar to that of insulin.
Glucagon can be used in
- Severe hypoglycemia
- Endocrine diagnosis
- Beta-blocker poisoning