METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Vitamins, Vitamin-like Compounds, Antivitamins, Enzymes & Antienzymes Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Vitamins, Vitamin-like Compounds, Antivitamins, Enzymes & Antienzymes > Flashcards

Flashcards in METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Vitamins, Vitamin-like Compounds, Antivitamins, Enzymes & Antienzymes Deck (71):
1

Vitamins are

Any of various fat-soluble or water-soluble organic substances essential in minute amounts for normal growth and activity of the body and obtained naturally from plant and animal fo

2

Vitamin-like compounds are

A number of compounds, whose nutritional requirements exist at specific periods of development, particularly neonatal development, and periods of rapid growth

3

Antivitamins are

Substances that prevent vitamins from exerting their typical metabolic effects

4

Coenzymes are

Nonprotein organic substances that usually contain a vitamin or mineral and combines with a specific apoenzyme to form an active enzyme system

5

Antienzymes are

Agents, especially an inhibitory enzymes or an antibodies to enzymes, that retard, inhibit, or destroy enzymic activity

6

True or False. Hypovitaminosis is an insufficiency of one or more essential vitamins.

TRUE

7

True or False. Hypervitaminosis is any of various abnormal conditions in which the physiological effect of a vitamin is produced to a pathological degree by excessive intake of the vitamin.

TRUE

8

Select a fat-soluble vitamin

Tocopherol

9

Select a water-soluble vitamin

Vitamin B1

10

Which vitamins can be also synthesized from a dietary precursor?

Vitamin A

11

Which vitamins resembles with hormone

Vitamin D

12

Beri-beri is caused by the deficiency of

Thiamine

13

Beri-beri is

Disease caused by a deficiency of thiamine, endemic in eastern and southern Asia, and characterized by neurological symptoms, cardiovascular abnormalities, and edema. It is also called endemic neuritis

14

Deficiency symptom of riboflavin is

- Cheilitis – inflammation of the lips or of a lip, with redness and the production of fissures radiating from the angles of the mouth
- Cheilosis – a disorder of the lips characterized by fissures, especially in the corners of the mouth
- Angular stomatitis, associated with a wrinkled or fissured epithelium that does not involve the mucosa

15

True or False about vitamin A functions. Transmission of light stimuli to the brain, via combination with a specific protein, opsin, to form a visual pigment, rhodopsin, in the retina of the eye

TRUE

16

True or False about vitamin A functions. Regulation of cell growth and differentiation in epithelium, connective tissues (including bone and cartilage) and hematopoietic tissues by retinoic acid, a highly bioactive metabolite of retinol

TRUE

17

True or False about vitamin A functions. Retinoic acid is especially important during embryogenesis

TRUE

18

True or False about vitamin A functions. Acts as a hormone involved in regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

FALSE

19

Deficiency symptom of vitamin A is

- Night blindness – lessened ability to see in dim light
- Xerophthalmia and keratomalacia
- Various epithelial tissue defects, leading to decreased resistance to infective diseases, male and female infertility

20

Xerophthalmia is

Extreme dryness of the conjunctiva resulting from a disease localized in the eye or from systemic deficiency of vitamin A

21

Keratomalacia is:

A condition, usually in children with vitamin A deficiency, characterized by softening and subsequent ulceration and perforation of the cornea

22

Night blindness (Hemeralopia, Nyctalopia) is

A condition of the eyes in which vision is normal in daylight or other strong light but is abnormally weak or completely lost at night or in dim light and that results from vitamin A deficiency

23

True or False about vitamin E functions. An extremely important antioxidant, which protects cell membrane lipids from peroxidation by breaking the chain reaction of free radical formation to which polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly vulnerable

TRUE

24

True or False about vitamin E functions. Antisterility and antiabortion factor

TRUE

25

True or False about vitamin E functions. Specifically required for synthesis of prothrombin and several other clotting factors

FALSE

26

True or False about vitamin E functions. An essential for oxidative processes regulation

TRUE

27

True or False about vitamin B1. An essential coenzyme for oxidative decarboxylate of alpha-keto acids, most important being conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A

TRUE

28

True or False about vitamin B2 functions. Essential constituent of flavoproteins, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

TRUE

29

True or False about vitamin B2 functions. Plays key roles in hydrogen transfer reactions associated with glycolysis, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

TRUE

30

True or False about vitamin B2 functions. An essential coenzyme for oxidative decarboxylate of alpha-keto acids, most important being conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A

FALSE

31

True or False about vitamin B2 functions. Deficiency symptoms are cheilitis, cheilosis and angular stomatitis

TRUE

32

True or False about vitamin PP (B3, niacin) functions. Active group of the coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide-adenine phosphate (NADP)

TRUE

33

True or False about pyridoxine (vitamin B6) functions. Active functional form is pyridoxal phosphate, which is an essential coenzyme for transamination and decarboxylation of amino acids in more than 50 different enzyme systems

TRUE

34

True or False about pantothinic acid functions. Essential constituent of coenzyme A, the important coenzyme for acyl transfer in the TCA cycle and de novo fatty acid synthesis

TRUE

35

True or False about biotin functions. Coenzyme for several reactions involving CO2 fixation into various compounds e.g. acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA (acetyl CoA carboxylase) – initial step in de novo fatty acid synthesis; propionyl CoA to methylmalonyl CoA (propionyl CoA carboxylase), pyruvate to oxaloacetate (pyruvate carboxylase).

TRUE

36

True or False about vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) functions. Coenzyme for numerous metabolic reaction, including transformation of methylamlonyl CoA to succinyl CoA in the metabolism of propionate; DNA synthesis (acts in concert with folic acid); transmethylation e.g. methionine synthesis from homocysteine

TRUE

37

True or False about folic acid (folacin) functions. Carrier of one-carbon (e.g. methyl) groups that are added to, or removed from, metabolites such as histidine, serine, methionine, and purines

TRUE

38

True or False about vitamin C functions. Has antioxidant properties and is required for various hydroxylation reactions e.g. proline to hydroxypoline for collagen synthesis

TRUE

39

Dermatitis, diarrhoea and dementia are characteristics of

Pellagra

40

Pellagra is

A disease caused by a deficiency of niacin in the diet and characterized by skin eruptions, digestive and nervous system disturbances, and eventual mental deterioration

41

Pernicious anemia is

A severe form of anemia most often affecting elderly adults, caused by a failure of the stomach to absorb vitamin B12 and characterized by abnormally large red blood cells, gastrointestinal disturbances, and lesions of the spinal cord

42

Rickets is

A deficiency disease resulting from a lack of vitamin D or calcium and from insufficient exposure to sunlight, characterized by defective bone growth and occurring chiefly in children

43

Scurvy is

A disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C and characterized by spongy bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and weakness

44

Which vitamins is given along with isoniazide in treatment of tuberculosis?

Pyridoxine

45

Which vitamins is also known as an antisterility factor?

Vitamin E

46

Mega doses of which vitamin are some time beneficial viral respiratory infections

Vitamin С

47

Which vitamins improves megaloblast anemia but does not protect the neurological manifestations of pernicious anemia?

Vitamin B12

48

True or False. Vitamin К enhances the anticoagulant property of coumarins.

FALSE

49

Loosening of teeth, gingivitis and hemorrhage occur in the deficiency of

Vitamin C

50

Ingestion of polar bear liver may cause acute poisoning of

Vitamin A

51

Which antivitamins prevent a vitamin B6 from exerting its typical metabolic effects?

- Isoniazide
- Ethanol
- Carbamazepine

52

Which antivitamins prevent a vitamin A from exerting its typical metabolic effects?

Lipooxidase

53

Which antivitamins prevent a vitamin K from exerting its typical metabolic effects?

- Cholestiramine
- Coumarins
- Antibiotics

54

Which coenzymes is of vitamin origin?

Piridixal-5-phosphate

55

Which coenzymes is not of vitamin origin?

- Coenzyme Q10
- Magnesium
- Carnitine

56

These substances are vitamin-like compounds

- Choline
- Vitamin U (methylmethioninesulfonil chloride)
- Orotate acid

57

Which substances is a vitamin-like compound?

Taurine

58

Which antienzymes is a proteolysis inhibitor?

Contrical

59

Which antienzymes is a beta-lactamase inhibitor?

- Clavulanic acid
- Sulbactam
- Tazobactam

60

Which antienzymes is a fibrinolysis inhibitor?

Aminocaproic acid

61

Which antienzymes is an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor?

Disulfiram

62

Which antienzymes is a cholinesterase inhibitor?

Physostigmine

63

Which antienzymes is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor

Selegiline

64

Which antienzymes is a xantine oxidase inhibitor?

Allopurinol

65

Which antienzymes is an aromatase inhibitor used in cancer therapy?

Aminoglutethimide

66

Which enzymes improves GIT functions (replacement therapy)

Pepsin

67

Which enzymes has fibrinolytic activity?

Urokinase

68

Which enzymes is used in cancer therapy?

L-asparaginase

69

True or False about nutritional supplement (dietary supplement). Nutritional supplements are regulated as foods, and not as drugs

TRUE

70

True or False about nutritional supplement (dietary supplement). Nutritional supplements are not pre-approved on their safety and efficacy, unlike drugs

TRUE

71

True or False about nutritional supplement (dietary supplement). Nutritional supplements are intended to supplement the diet and bear or contain one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for human use to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake (e.g., enzymes or tissue from organ or glands), a concentrate, such as a meal replacement or energy bar, a metabolite, constituent, or extract

TRUE

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