Flashcards in METABOLIC PROFILE DRUGS - Vitamins, Vitamin-like Compounds, Antivitamins, Enzymes & Antienzymes Deck (71):
Any of various fat-soluble or water-soluble organic substances essential in minute amounts for normal growth and activity of the body and obtained naturally from plant and animal fo
Vitamin-like compounds are
A number of compounds, whose nutritional requirements exist at specific periods of development, particularly neonatal development, and periods of rapid growth
Substances that prevent vitamins from exerting their typical metabolic effects
Nonprotein organic substances that usually contain a vitamin or mineral and combines with a specific apoenzyme to form an active enzyme system
Agents, especially an inhibitory enzymes or an antibodies to enzymes, that retard, inhibit, or destroy enzymic activity
True or False. Hypovitaminosis is an insufficiency of one or more essential vitamins.
True or False. Hypervitaminosis is any of various abnormal conditions in which the physiological effect of a vitamin is produced to a pathological degree by excessive intake of the vitamin.
Select a fat-soluble vitamin
Select a water-soluble vitamin
Which vitamins can be also synthesized from a dietary precursor?
Which vitamins resembles with hormone
Beri-beri is caused by the deficiency of
Disease caused by a deficiency of thiamine, endemic in eastern and southern Asia, and characterized by neurological symptoms, cardiovascular abnormalities, and edema. It is also called endemic neuritis
Deficiency symptom of riboflavin is
- Cheilitis – inflammation of the lips or of a lip, with redness and the production of fissures radiating from the angles of the mouth
- Cheilosis – a disorder of the lips characterized by fissures, especially in the corners of the mouth
- Angular stomatitis, associated with a wrinkled or fissured epithelium that does not involve the mucosa
True or False about vitamin A functions. Transmission of light stimuli to the brain, via combination with a specific protein, opsin, to form a visual pigment, rhodopsin, in the retina of the eye
True or False about vitamin A functions. Regulation of cell growth and differentiation in epithelium, connective tissues (including bone and cartilage) and hematopoietic tissues by retinoic acid, a highly bioactive metabolite of retinol
True or False about vitamin A functions. Retinoic acid is especially important during embryogenesis
True or False about vitamin A functions. Acts as a hormone involved in regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis
Deficiency symptom of vitamin A is
- Night blindness – lessened ability to see in dim light
- Xerophthalmia and keratomalacia
- Various epithelial tissue defects, leading to decreased resistance to infective diseases, male and female infertility
Extreme dryness of the conjunctiva resulting from a disease localized in the eye or from systemic deficiency of vitamin A
A condition, usually in children with vitamin A deficiency, characterized by softening and subsequent ulceration and perforation of the cornea
Night blindness (Hemeralopia, Nyctalopia) is
A condition of the eyes in which vision is normal in daylight or other strong light but is abnormally weak or completely lost at night or in dim light and that results from vitamin A deficiency
True or False about vitamin E functions. An extremely important antioxidant, which protects cell membrane lipids from peroxidation by breaking the chain reaction of free radical formation to which polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly vulnerable
True or False about vitamin E functions. Antisterility and antiabortion factor
True or False about vitamin E functions. Specifically required for synthesis of prothrombin and several other clotting factors
True or False about vitamin E functions. An essential for oxidative processes regulation
True or False about vitamin B1. An essential coenzyme for oxidative decarboxylate of alpha-keto acids, most important being conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A
True or False about vitamin B2 functions. Essential constituent of flavoproteins, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
True or False about vitamin B2 functions. Plays key roles in hydrogen transfer reactions associated with glycolysis, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
True or False about vitamin B2 functions. An essential coenzyme for oxidative decarboxylate of alpha-keto acids, most important being conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A
True or False about vitamin B2 functions. Deficiency symptoms are cheilitis, cheilosis and angular stomatitis
True or False about vitamin PP (B3, niacin) functions. Active group of the coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide-adenine phosphate (NADP)
True or False about pyridoxine (vitamin B6) functions. Active functional form is pyridoxal phosphate, which is an essential coenzyme for transamination and decarboxylation of amino acids in more than 50 different enzyme systems
True or False about pantothinic acid functions. Essential constituent of coenzyme A, the important coenzyme for acyl transfer in the TCA cycle and de novo fatty acid synthesis
True or False about biotin functions. Coenzyme for several reactions involving CO2 fixation into various compounds e.g. acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA (acetyl CoA carboxylase) – initial step in de novo fatty acid synthesis; propionyl CoA to methylmalonyl CoA (propionyl CoA carboxylase), pyruvate to oxaloacetate (pyruvate carboxylase).
True or False about vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) functions. Coenzyme for numerous metabolic reaction, including transformation of methylamlonyl CoA to succinyl CoA in the metabolism of propionate; DNA synthesis (acts in concert with folic acid); transmethylation e.g. methionine synthesis from homocysteine
True or False about folic acid (folacin) functions. Carrier of one-carbon (e.g. methyl) groups that are added to, or removed from, metabolites such as histidine, serine, methionine, and purines
True or False about vitamin C functions. Has antioxidant properties and is required for various hydroxylation reactions e.g. proline to hydroxypoline for collagen synthesis
Dermatitis, diarrhoea and dementia are characteristics of
A disease caused by a deficiency of niacin in the diet and characterized by skin eruptions, digestive and nervous system disturbances, and eventual mental deterioration
Pernicious anemia is
A severe form of anemia most often affecting elderly adults, caused by a failure of the stomach to absorb vitamin B12 and characterized by abnormally large red blood cells, gastrointestinal disturbances, and lesions of the spinal cord
A deficiency disease resulting from a lack of vitamin D or calcium and from insufficient exposure to sunlight, characterized by defective bone growth and occurring chiefly in children
A disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C and characterized by spongy bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and weakness
Which vitamins is given along with isoniazide in treatment of tuberculosis?
Which vitamins is also known as an antisterility factor?
Mega doses of which vitamin are some time beneficial viral respiratory infections
Which vitamins improves megaloblast anemia but does not protect the neurological manifestations of pernicious anemia?
True or False. Vitamin К enhances the anticoagulant property of coumarins.
Loosening of teeth, gingivitis and hemorrhage occur in the deficiency of
Ingestion of polar bear liver may cause acute poisoning of
Which antivitamins prevent a vitamin B6 from exerting its typical metabolic effects?
Which antivitamins prevent a vitamin A from exerting its typical metabolic effects?
Which antivitamins prevent a vitamin K from exerting its typical metabolic effects?
Which coenzymes is of vitamin origin?
Which coenzymes is not of vitamin origin?
- Coenzyme Q10
These substances are vitamin-like compounds
- Vitamin U (methylmethioninesulfonil chloride)
- Orotate acid
Which substances is a vitamin-like compound?
Which antienzymes is a proteolysis inhibitor?
Which antienzymes is a beta-lactamase inhibitor?
- Clavulanic acid
Which antienzymes is a fibrinolysis inhibitor?
Which antienzymes is an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor?
Which antienzymes is a cholinesterase inhibitor?
Which antienzymes is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor
Which antienzymes is a xantine oxidase inhibitor?
Which antienzymes is an aromatase inhibitor used in cancer therapy?
Which enzymes improves GIT functions (replacement therapy)
Which enzymes has fibrinolytic activity?
Which enzymes is used in cancer therapy?
True or False about nutritional supplement (dietary supplement). Nutritional supplements are regulated as foods, and not as drugs
True or False about nutritional supplement (dietary supplement). Nutritional supplements are not pre-approved on their safety and efficacy, unlike drugs