Metabolism 1. Flashcards Preview

Biology > Metabolism 1. > Flashcards

Flashcards in Metabolism 1. Deck (21)
Loading flashcards...
1

1. To a physiologist,metabolism refers to the
a. rate of ATP synthesis
b. rate of ATP hydrolysis
c. rate of oxygen consumption
d. way in which molecules are synthesized
e. all of the chemical reactions

e. All of the chemical reactions

2

Thesynthesisoforganicmoleculesistermed________________.

Anabolism

3

Theintracellularconversionofmacromoleculestosimplermoleculesis
termed _____________________.

Catabolism

4

Explainhowacalorieisdefinedandgiveanexampleofhowitcanbeusedin
physiology.

- a calorie is the amount of energy absorbed when 1 gram of water increases in temperature by 1 degree Celsius
- calories can be used to measure the chemical energy stored in food or the amount of energy absorbed by the body to do work

5

Write an endergonic reaction involving ATP

ADP + P --> ATP

6

Write an exergonic reaction involving ATP

ATP --> ADP + P

7

Explain why the turnover rate of ATP is very high.

-ATP is being converted to ADP and P to supply all of the energy needs of the body and it is being synthesized at the same rate by oxidative respiration

8

Most of the ATP in humans is produced by the metabolic process called
________________________.

-oxidative phosphorylation

9

ATP synthase is located in the ____________________________

inner membrane of mitochondria

10

Describe how ATPase transfers energy from one group of molecules to
another (2 marks).

- ATPase (ATP synthase) absorbs the energy that is released when H+ ions diffuse through it and uses it to power the endergonic reaction in which ATP is synthesized from ADP and P

11

The electron transport system (ETS) consists of
______________________________ located in the
__________________________________.

a) molecules that accept and transfer electrons and pump hydrogen ions
b) inner membrane of the mitochondrion

12

Describe the action of the electron transport system and how it transfers
energy from one group of molecules to another (3 marks).

-electron transport molecules accept electrons from NADH and transfer them eventually to oxygen
-as electrons are transferred from one electron transporter to another, the energy absorbed in the electron transport is used by the electron transporter to pump H+ ions into the intermembrane space of mitochondria

13

Describe the role of NADH in ATP production.

NADH is the source of electrons that enter the electron transport chain (system)

14

Electrons are transferred to the electron transport chain from
_______________.

NADH (and/or FADH2)

15

Electrons leave the electron transport chain and become attached to
______________.

oxygen

16

The citric acid cycle is a series of biochemical reactions that take place in
____________________________.

matrix of mitochondria

17

List three inputs to the citric acid cycle, one intermediate and three outputs.

INPUTS: acetyl CoA, ADP. NAD+
OUTPUTS: carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH

18

List the number of carbon atoms in each of the following molecules:
a. acetyl
b. glucose
c. pyruvic acid
d. carbondioxide
e. oxaloaceticacid
f. citric acid

a. acetyl = 2
b. glucose = 6
c. pyruvic acid = 3
d. carbon dioxide = 1
e. oxaloacetic acid = 4
f. citric acid = 6

19

19. Glycolysis occurs in the ___________________________.

cytoplasm of all cells

20

List three inputs and three outputs of glycolysis.

INPUTS: glucose, ADP, NAD+
OUTPUTS: pyruvic acid, ATP, NADH

21

_______________ is a three-carbon long molecule that may be produced
from some amino acids.

Pyruvic Acid