Flashcards in Metabolism and Nutrition Deck (48):
When fuels are metabolized in the body, heat is generated and _________ is synthesized.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Energy is produced by oxidizing fuels to ___ and ____.
CO2 and H2O
Carbohydrates produce about ____/g
Proteins produce about _____/g
Fats produce about _____/g
Alcohol, present in many diets, produces about _____/g
_______ is used to maintain blood glucose levels during the early stages of fasting.
_________ is oxidized for muscle contraction. It does not contribute to blood glucose maintenance.
______ is the energy used by a person who hasfasted for at least 12 hours and is awake but at rest.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Diet-induced thermogenesis is ...
the elevation in metabolic rate that occurs during digestion and absorption of foods.
________ is the elevation in metabolic rate that occurs during digestion and absorption of foods.
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT)
The most common form of hyperthyroidism is ____
Graves disease [describe]
Characterized by an elevated BMR, enlarged thryoid (goiter), protruding eyes, nervousness, tremors, palpitations, excessive perspiration and weight loss
Hypothyroidism results from a _______
deficiency of thyroid hormone
Type 2 diabetes is the result of ______
reduced cellular responsiveness to insulin
cholesterol intake should be no more than ____/day for healthy individuals, and < ____/day in those with established atherosclerosis.
300 mg, 200 mg
Recommended protein intake is ___/kg body weight per day.
Negative nitrogen balance [describe]
a diet low in calories high in proteins of low biologic value (amino acid poor). Body protein is degraded as amino acids are converted to glucose. The amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine each day is greater than ingested.
___ amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and, therefore, must be present in the diet
____ is only required in small amounts; however, larger amounts are required in children, pregnant women and people recovering from injuries
Dietary protein, which contains about 16% ____, is the body's primary source of the stuff.
The nine amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body
histidine, iosleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine
Positive nitrogen balance
body protein synthesis exceeds the amount being excreted creating strain upon the kidneys
In the liver, glucose is also converted to triacylglycerols, which are packaged in __________, and released into the blood.
very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
The fatty acids of the VLDL are stored in ____
Dietary fats (triacylglycerols) are digested to fatty acids and ________
____ and _____ are resynthesized to triacylglycerols by intestinal epithelial cells, packaged in chylomicrons, and secreted via the lymph
fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerols
fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerols are resynthesized to triacylglycerols by ________, packaged in _______, and secreted via the lymph in the blood.
intestinal epithelial cells, chylomicrons
chylomicrons are a major class of ______
______ (in the mouth) and _____ (in the intestine) cleave starch to disaccharides and oligosaccharides
salivary α-amylase, pancreatic α-amylase
Sucrase converts sucrose to ______ and ______
Lactase converts lactose to ______ and ______
What are the four pancreatic enzymes
protease, lipase, amylase, gelatinase
proteins are first digested by ____ in the stomach and then by a series of enzymes in the intestine
the pancreas produces ___, ___, ___, and ___, which act in the lumen of the intestine
trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidases
_____ is the most common lethal genetic disease among the white population of the United States
(Hormone levels & blood)
Insulin levels rise principally as a result of ___ levels, and to lesser extent ____
increased blood glucose levels, increased blood levels of amino acids
(Hormone levels & blood)
Glucagon levels ___ in response to glucose, but ___ in response to amino acids
untreated Type 1 DM, insulin levels are low or nonexistent because of destruction of ____
β cells of the pancreas
(The fate of glucose in the liver)
stored in the liver as glycogen
The fate of glucose in red blood cells
lacking mitochondria, oxidize glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which are released into the blood
The fate of glucose in muscle cells
take up glucose by a transport process that is stimulated by insulin. They oxidize glucose to CO2 and H2O to generate ATP for contraction, and they also store glucose as glycogen for use during contraction.
The fate of glucose in adipose cells
take upglucose by a transport process that is stimulated by insulin. These cells oxidize glucose to produce energy and convert it to the glycerol moiety used to produce triacylglycerol stores.
about 2-3 hours after a meal
the liver begins to break down its glycogen stores
glucose is released into the blood
glucose is then taken up by tissues and oxidized
carbon sources for gluconeogenesis
1. lactate - produced by tissues like red blood cells or exercising muscle
2. glycerol - from breakdown of triacylglycerols in adipose tissues
3. amino acids - particularly alanine from muscle protein
4. propionate - from oxidation of odd-chain fatty acids
Through the process of ________, the liver converts the fatty acids to acetyl CoA
____ is used by the liver for the synthesis of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate