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Flashcards in Metabolism and Nutrition Deck (48):
1

(Fuels)
When fuels are metabolized in the body, heat is generated and _________ is synthesized.

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

2

(Fuels)
Energy is produced by oxidizing fuels to ___ and ____.

CO2 and H2O

3

(Fuels)
Carbohydrates produce about ____/g

4 kcal

4

(Fuels)
Proteins produce about _____/g

4 kcal

5

(Fuels)
Fats produce about _____/g

9 kcal

6

(Fuels)
Alcohol, present in many diets, produces about _____/g

7 kcal

7

(Fuel stores)
_______ is used to maintain blood glucose levels during the early stages of fasting.

liver glycogen

8

(Fuel stores)
_________ is oxidized for muscle contraction. It does not contribute to blood glucose maintenance.

muscle glycogen

9

(Fuel)
______ is the energy used by a person who hasfasted for at least 12 hours and is awake but at rest.

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

10

(Fuel)
Diet-induced thermogenesis is ...

the elevation in metabolic rate that occurs during digestion and absorption of foods.

11

(Fuel)
________ is the elevation in metabolic rate that occurs during digestion and absorption of foods.

Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT)

12

(Diseases)
The most common form of hyperthyroidism is ____

Graves disease.

13

(Diseases)
Graves disease [describe]

Characterized by an elevated BMR, enlarged thryoid (goiter), protruding eyes, nervousness, tremors, palpitations, excessive perspiration and weight loss

14

(Diseases)
Hypothyroidism results from a _______

deficiency of thyroid hormone

15

(Diseases)
Type 2 diabetes is the result of ______

reduced cellular responsiveness to insulin

16

(Diet)
cholesterol intake should be no more than ____/day for healthy individuals, and < ____/day in those with established atherosclerosis.

300 mg, 200 mg

17

(Diet)
Recommended protein intake is ___/kg body weight per day.

0.8g

18

(Diet)
Negative nitrogen balance [describe]

a diet low in calories high in proteins of low biologic value (amino acid poor). Body protein is degraded as amino acids are converted to glucose. The amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine each day is greater than ingested.

19

___ amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and, therefore, must be present in the diet

9

20

(Amino acids)
____ is only required in small amounts; however, larger amounts are required in children, pregnant women and people recovering from injuries

histidine

21

Dietary protein, which contains about 16% ____, is the body's primary source of the stuff.

nitrogen

22

The nine amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body

histidine, iosleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine

23

(Diet)
Positive nitrogen balance

body protein synthesis exceeds the amount being excreted creating strain upon the kidneys

24

(Absorptive state)
In the liver, glucose is also converted to triacylglycerols, which are packaged in __________, and released into the blood.

very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)

25

(Absorptive state)
The fatty acids of the VLDL are stored in ____

adipose tissue

26

(Absorptive state)
Dietary fats (triacylglycerols) are digested to fatty acids and ________

2-momoacylglycerols

27

(Absorptive state)
____ and _____ are resynthesized to triacylglycerols by intestinal epithelial cells, packaged in chylomicrons, and secreted via the lymph

fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerols

28

(Absorptive state)
fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerols are resynthesized to triacylglycerols by ________, packaged in _______, and secreted via the lymph in the blood.

intestinal epithelial cells, chylomicrons

29

(Absorptive state)
chylomicrons are a major class of ______

blood lipoproteins

30

(Absorptive state)
______ (in the mouth) and _____ (in the intestine) cleave starch to disaccharides and oligosaccharides

salivary α-amylase, pancreatic α-amylase

31

(Absorptive state)
Sucrase converts sucrose to ______ and ______

fructose, glucose

32

(Absorptive state)
Lactase converts lactose to ______ and ______

glucose, galactose

33

(Absorptive state)
What are the four pancreatic enzymes

protease, lipase, amylase, gelatinase

34

(Absorptive state)
proteins are first digested by ____ in the stomach and then by a series of enzymes in the intestine

pepsin

35

(Absorptive state)
the pancreas produces ___, ___, ___, and ___, which act in the lumen of the intestine

trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidases

36

(Absorptive state)
_____ is the most common lethal genetic disease among the white population of the United States

cystic fibrosis

37

(Hormone levels & blood)
Insulin levels rise principally as a result of ___ levels, and to lesser extent ____

increased blood glucose levels, increased blood levels of amino acids

38

(Hormone levels & blood)
Glucagon levels ___ in response to glucose, but ___ in response to amino acids

fall, rise

39

(Absorptive state)
untreated Type 1 DM, insulin levels are low or nonexistent because of destruction of ____

β cells of the pancreas

40

(The fate of glucose in the liver)
Excess glucose

stored in the liver as glycogen

41

The fate of glucose in red blood cells

lacking mitochondria, oxidize glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which are released into the blood

42

The fate of glucose in muscle cells

take up glucose by a transport process that is stimulated by insulin. They oxidize glucose to CO2 and H2O to generate ATP for contraction, and they also store glucose as glycogen for use during contraction.

43

The fate of glucose in adipose cells

take upglucose by a transport process that is stimulated by insulin. These cells oxidize glucose to produce energy and convert it to the glycerol moiety used to produce triacylglycerol stores.

44

glycogenolysis

about 2-3 hours after a meal
the liver begins to break down its glycogen stores
glucose is released into the blood
glucose is then taken up by tissues and oxidized

45

carbon sources for gluconeogenesis

1. lactate - produced by tissues like red blood cells or exercising muscle
2. glycerol - from breakdown of triacylglycerols in adipose tissues
3. amino acids - particularly alanine from muscle protein
4. propionate - from oxidation of odd-chain fatty acids

46

Through the process of ________, the liver converts the fatty acids to acetyl CoA

β-oxidation

47

____ is used by the liver for the synthesis of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate

acetyl CoA

48

Acetyl CoA is used by the liver for the synthesis of the ketone bodies, _____ and ______

acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate