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Flashcards in Metabolism objectives Deck (25):
1

Define metabolism

The sum of all chemical reactions in the body

2

Which theory states that when blood gluclose is low the satiety center is suppressed?

Glucostatic Theory

3

Define the Lipostatic theory

Body fat stores modulate eating behavior.

4

What is leptin?

A negative feedback signal between adipose tissue and the brain

5

What signal molecule is a stimulus for food intake?

Neuropeptide Y

6

What are the 3 ways ingested energy may be used?

Energy, Sythesis, Storage.

7

What is direct calorimetry?

measuring the caloric value of food by burning it and measuring how much it raises the temp of water.

8

What raises the temp of 1L of water by 1 degree?

KiloCalorie

9

what is the equation for measuring MR by oxygen consumption?

MR=LO2 consumed X kcal/LO2.

10

What is the ratio of CO2 to O2 consumed called?

RQ

11

What is the importance of RQ?

Tells us the ratio of CO2 to O2 consumed depending on the diet.

12

Define energy pools

energy that is available for immediate use

13

What is excess gluclose stored as?

Glycogen

14

What process converts glucose to glycogen?

Glycogenesis

15

What process converts excess glucose to fat?

lipogenesis

16

Describe what is happening with each biomolecule in a fed state?

Glucose-Used in glycolisis and citric acid cycle to make atp. Excess is stored as fat or glycogen.
Amino Acids- used for protein synthesis. Excess are stored as fat or burned as energy.
Fat- is converted into cholesterol or stored for energy.

17

Describe what is happening with each biomolecule in a fasted state

Glucose-glycogenolysis, glycogen is broken down to glucose or glucose 6-phosphate.
Pyruvate or lactate is produced in skeletal muscle and sent to the liver for gluconeogenesis
Amino Acids-Deamination turns amino acids into pyruvate, and acetlyl CoA and are used in the citric acid cycle to make ATP.
Fats-Lipolysis breaks down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. Through beta oxidation acetyl CoA is created and used in the citric acid cycle. In the liver Ketone bodies result from too much acetyl CoA.

18

What energy sources can the brain use?

Glucose or Ketone bodies.

19

What hormone is dominate when glucose is being released into the blood by the liver?

Glucagon

20

What transporter does insulin affect that allows cell to take more in?

GLUT transporters.

21

What does Glucagon do during fasted states?

Stimulate the liver to start glycogenolysis and gluconeogenisis.

22

What disease is characterized by abnormally high plasma glucose?

Diabetes.

23

What is the cause of type 1 diabetes?

beta cells that produce insulin are destroyed.

24

What is the cause of type 2 diabetes?

Resistinace to insulins' effect

25

Which type of diabetes is characterized by over production of ketones?

Type 1