Flashcards in Methods for Studying Intimate Relationships Deck (74):
There is a recent trend that says that men who do more housework have ___ sex.
Manliness is associated with not doing ___.
Kornrich's study found that men that do more core housework had ___ sex.
Kornrich's study found that men that do more non-core housework had ___ sex.
According to Kornrich, traditionally masculine and feminine behaviours consciously or unconsciously serve as ___ ___ for individuals.
Research is often informed by ___, as we do not enter research with blank slates.
What are the 3 common types of questions asked in social science research?
1. Description (what happens).
2. Prediction (when does it happen).
3. Explanation (why does it happen).
What kind of question is the following: "When men do the housework, does it harm the couple's sex life?"
This is a prediction.
Theories tell us what ___ to look at.
What are some example of variables?
More vs. less housework, amount of sex.
Scientific theories must be ___.
Is the theory of fate a scientific theory?
No, it is not falsifiable, and therefore is not scientific.
Kornrich's experiment drew from which theory?
The Sexual Scripts Theory.
What is the Sexual Scripts Theory?
We possess internalized, culturally dictated "scripts" about what is "sexy."
Give an example of sexual scripts.
Tanned skin is sexy in Western cultures, but not in Eastern cultures.
People want to be treated ___ in a relationship.
When we are not treated fairly, we react to this injustice with...
Anger and resentment.
What determines fairness?
- Social reference.
- Personal expectations from a relationship.
- Couples' particular context.
The ___ of fairness is more important than behaviours, since fairness is an active cognitive process, while behaviours may just automatically happen.
What is Relative Deprivation Theory?
Asks whether anyone in the relationship feels that the relationship is unfair.
___ is not always the same as fair in Relative Deprivation Theory.
According to Johnson et al., when men make a fair contribution to housework, couples will enjoy...
More frequent and satisfying sex.
Specific, concrete method used to measure a construct.
How do you measure love?
By operationalizing the construct.
When asked self-report questions, we are likely to skew things in a ___ light for ourselves.
Females ___ the amount of housework they do, making their figure more accurate.
Men ___ the amount of housework they do.
When asked to think back retrospectively, accurate response will not be given. For example, a good relationship may be associated with more sex automatically.
Participants are more likely to respond with accurate information when the survey is ___ to take.
A means of collecting data using the operationalization of the psychological construct.
What method of measurement is seen as the best and the most efficient way?
Why is self-report so highly touted?
It is difficult to observe internalized emotions like love.
In self-report studies, there are protocols in place to compensate for the tendency to skew towards...
Give an example of a safeguard in place for artificial positive responses.
There is a section of questions where if extreme answers are given, the data is thrown out.
There can be any number of responses.
Give only a certain range of answers from which the participant must choose.
What type of questions are most common?
Measurements that include items that tap a wide variety of domains.
Give an example of an omnibus measure.
Looking at factors like communication, trust, and conflict resolution to measure love.
What is the problem with omnibus measures?
They are not very precise.
Encountered in omnibus measures, as things like communication, trust, and conflict resolution are interrelated.
Asks about broad feelings about a partner.
Give examples of global measure questions.
- How much do you love your partner?
- How satisfied are you with your relationship?
What is something that students often cite as problematic with global measures?
What "very satisfied" means is not the same across people.
What is the counterargument to the claim that "very satisfied" means different things to different people?
It does not really matter. The whole point is that everyone has different interpretations.
Omnibus measures try to fit everyone into ___ ___.
In observation, if you know someone is watching you, you are more likely to act...
In observation, you must be able to bridge the gap between what is seen and...
What is actually going on.
When asked how satisfaction changed, the partners said that...
Over the first 10 years, they weren't as happy but the situation gradually improved. Over the next 10 years, things stabilized.
In reality, partners perceived their relationship incorrectly in self-report studies, as...
Things declined steadily in 20 years.
There is a ___ bias in self-reports.
Why must researchers be precise in wording? Give an example if necessary.
Different people consider sex to be different things.
As the type of contact becomes more sexual, people increasingly consider that behaviour to be...
There is a jump in the interpretation of an action as sex when...
Genitals are involved.
Research designs determines...
What types of questions and what types of information you can get.
For cross-sectional studies, all we know is how things relate to one another at...
One point in time.
Causal arguments can/can't be made from cross-sectional studies.
Kornrich made a flaw when she made a...
Causal connection with cross-sectional data.
Longitudinal studies follows people over...
Can longitudinal studies support causal statements?
What is a perfect positive relationship?
A 1:1 relationship, where if one variable increases one unit, the other increases one unit as well.
What type of relationship is the best you can hope for in the social sciences?
A high positive relationship.
Do anomalies that fall outside the general spectrum invalidate data?
No, it just shows that there is variability.
Anomalies become more rare when you...
Start stacking up relationships across many characteristics.
Johnson et al.'s study differs from Kornrich et al.'s study in that...
It is longitudinal, not cross-sectional.
Statistically Significant Data
Null hypothesis is not true 95% of the time.
Prior level of both sex and housework are good indicators of...
Sexual Economics Theory
Sex is a resource that men want more than women. Women use sex as a bartering mechanism to get things that they want.
Prototype Baseline (Stability) Model would say that...
Housework and sex merely covary.
Prototype Unidirectional Model would say that...
- More housework leads to less (or more) sex.
- More sex leads to less (or more) housework.
Prototype Bidirectional Model would say that...
Housework and sex are reciprocally related.
Does housework lead to less sex, according to Johnson et al.?
No, since the baseline model fit best.
There was no association between the amount of housework that men do, and the amount or quality of sex. However, what did have an effect?
Making a fair contribution.