Micro Flashcards Preview

Undeleted > Micro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro Deck (186):
1

Branching filamentous rods

Nocardia (acid fast, urease +)
actinomyces (anaerobe)

2

Use of PAS

Whipple's disease

3

Chocolate agar growth

H. influenza

4

Thayer-Martin growth (has vanco/polymyxin/nystatin)

N. gonorrhea or N. menigitidis

5

Bordet-Genau growth

Bordatella pertussis

6

Tellurite/Loffler growth

C. diphtheria

7

Lowenstein-Jensen growth

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

8

Eaton's agar growth

Mycoplasma pneumonia

9

Charcoal yeast extract with cysteine/iron growth

Legionella

10

Assc with burn wounds

Pseudomonas

11

Encapsulated organisms (7)

H. flu
Strep pneumo
N. meningitidis
E. coli
Salmonella
Klebsiella
Strep group B

12

Catalase (+) bugs (7)

pseudomonas
listeria
aspergillus
candida
E. coli
S. aureus
serratia

13

Sulfur granules on microscopy

Actinoyces israelii

14

Bug that produces red pigment

Serratia marcescens

15

Pharyngitis/pseudomembrane
bull neck

C. diphtheria
inactivates EF2

16

Dysentery
GI mucosal damage
toxin caused

Shigella, shiga toxin
inactivates 60s ribosome
also seen in E. coli 0157:H7

17

Rice water diarrhea

cholera toxin
increases cAMP by adenylate cyclase

18

Whooping cough toxin

Pertussis toxin
disables Gi, increases cAMP

19

Tetanus MOA

toxin inhibits GABA/glycine release
muscle rigidity

20

Botulinum MOA

toxin prevents release of ACh at NMJ
paralysis

21

Toxins with A/B type MOA

Cholera toxin and pertussis toxin
B enters cell, A activates

22

Staph species differentiation

S. aureus-coagulase +
S. epidermidis-novobiocin sensitive
S. saprophyticus-novobiocin resistant

23

Strep species differentiation

S. pneumo-optochin sensitive, alpha hemolytic
Viridans strep-otpochin resistant, alpha
Group A strep-bacitracin sensitive, beta
Group B strep-bacitracin resistant, beta

24

S. aureus toxins

TSST-1 toxic shock
scalded skin syndrome
food poisoning

25

Bug seen on prosthetic heart valves

Staph epidermidis
biofilm

26

Pneumonia
otitis media
sinusitis
IgA protease (+)

Strep pneumo
rusty sputum
sepsis with sickle cell/splenectomy
optochin sensitive

27

Dental caries
endocarditis
normal flora

Viridans strep
Strep mutans-caries
S. sanguis-heart valves
resistant to optochin

28

Arthritis
carditis
nodules sub q
post infection

Strep pyogenes
bacitracin sensitive
ASO titer to detect
also see erythema marginatum and syndenham's chorea with Rheumatic fever

29

Rash over the body
red tongue and throat
post infection

Strep pyogenes
Scarlet fever
bacitracin sensitive
toxic shock like syndrome

30

1 yr/o
Pneumonia
meningitis

Strep agalactia (group B)
seen in babies
bacitracin resistant
Hippurate (+)

31

Subacute endocarditis
bacteremia

Strept bovis
colon cancer pts

32

Grayish-white on pharynx
lymphadenopathy of neck
(+) cystine-tellurite growth

C. diphtheria
bullneck/pseudomembrane
EF2 inhibiting toxin
(+) Elek's test

33

lecithinase (alpha toxin)
gas gangrene
hemolysis

C. perfringens
causes myonecrosis

34

Black eschar
bacteremia
edema

cutaneous anthrax
poly D glutamate capsule
lethal factor and edema factor cause eschars

35

Flu like sx
progresses quickly
mediastinitis
pulmonary hemorrhage

pulmonary anthrax
Woolsorter's disase-from contaminated wool

36

Rice and pasta diet
N/V for 5 hrs
watery diarrhea

Bacillus cereus
food poisoning
reheated rice syndrome

37

High dairy diet
spontaneous abortion in pt
gastroenteritis

Listeria monocytogenes
unpasteurized milk/cheese, deli meats
tumbling motility
moves cell to cell via actin rockets
neonatal meningitis

38

Oral abscess
sulfur granules on microscopy

Actinomyces
normal flora
anaerobic
branching filaments

39

Pneumonia in immunosuppressed pt
found in soil

nocardia
acid fast
branching filamentous rods

40

TB virulence factors

cord factor-inhibit Macrophage maturation
sulfatides-inhibit lysosomal fusion

41

Loss of sensation on feet and hands
no growth on agar
hairless skin plaques

mycobacterium leprae
US armadillos
lepromatous-communicable (Th2), diffuse
tuberculoid-Th1

42

Differentiation b/t neisseria strains

N. meningitidis- maltose fermenter
N. gonorrhea- maltose nonfermenter

43

Adrenal gland failure
shock
maltose fermentation

N. meningitidis
rapid necrosis of adrenals

44

Epiglottitis
otitis media
meningitis

H. influenza
otitis media from nontypeable
cultured on chocolate agar

45

Elderly man
pneumonia
GI and CNS sx
hx of hotel stay

Legionella pneumophilia
gram (-) rod
charcoal yeast growth (iron/cystein)
water source caused (AC unit)
intracellular in macrophages

46

Folliculitis after in hot tub
also external otitis
exotoxin A

Pseudomonas
green/blue pigment
smells like grapes
cystic fibrosis/hot tub/swimmer's ear/burn assc
toxin inactivates EF2

47

Homeless alcoholic
pneumonia
MacConkey growth

Klebsiella
red currant jelly sputum
diabetics/alcoholics

48

Rose spots on abd
fever
diarrhea

Slamonella typhi
typhoid fever

49

Bloody diarrhea in a kid
arthritis
S shaped
lower extremity weakness

Campylobacter jejuni
deli meat/milk
grows at 42 degrees, oxidase (+)
Guillain-Barre syndrome (ascending paralysis)

50

Rice water diarrhea
dehydration

vibrio cholerae
activates Gs protein
oxidase (+)
dehydration risk

51

Sx of Crohn's disease
has new puppy

Yersinia entercolitica
mimics Crohn's/appendicitis
assc with pet feces/milk/pork

52

Duodenal ulcers
dx with gastric adenocarcinoma

Helicobacter pylori
urease (+)
tx with PPI, clarithromycin, amoxicillin

53

Just got back from Hawaii
has jaundice
photophobia
proteinuria

Leptospira interrogans
Weil's disease (jaundice/azotemia/anemia)

54

Facial n. palsy
AV block
migratory arthritis
erythema migrans

Lyme disease-borrelia burgdoferi
NE U.S.
bull's eye rash
encephalopathy can develop

55

Pupil does not react to light
ataxia
Hx of maculopapular rash on palms/soles

Syphilis-treponema pallidum
VDRL screen, FTA-ABS confirm
painless chancre/maculopapular rash/tabes dorsalis (neurosyphilis)

56

Child born with deafness
notched teeth
abnormal molars

Congenital syphilis (treponema)
Saber shins/CN VIII/Hutchinson's teeth/mulberry molars

57

Dairy products
fever
muscular pain/swelling
migratory arthralgia

Brucella spp
Brucellosis

58

Bloody diarrhea
works at pet shop

Campylobacter
puppies/livestock/undercooked meat

59

Bitten by a cat
swelling around the area
bone pain

Pasteurella multocida
animal bite
cellulitis/osteomyolitis

60

Overcrowded area
Rash on trunk, spreads out (no palms/soles)
fever/headache

Rickettsia prowazekii
epidemic typhus
body louse vector

61

Hiker
rash on limbs that spread to trunk
headache/fever

Rickettsia ricketssii
needs CoA and NAD+

62

Farmer
presents with pneumonia sx

Coxiella burnetii
cattle placenta spores

63

African immigrant
Recurrent conjunctivitis
irritation of the cornea
no bugs seen on microscopy

Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes A,B,C
follicular conjunctivitis
can lead to blindness

64

Sexually active female
tenderness/inflammation in pelvis
no bugs seen on microscopy
What serotype?

Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes D-K
urethritis/PID
ectopic pregnancy/neonatal penumonia

65

Reactive arthritis
urethritis
sexually active

Chlamydia
elementary body enters cell
reticulate body replicates in cell
tx with azithromycin/doxycycline

66

Pneumonia
pt is mobile and walking
(+) cold agglutinins
grows on Eaton's agar

Mycoplasma pneumonia
walking pneumonia, contains sterols in membrane
military recruits/prisons
tx with fluoroquiolone or macrolides

67

Pt lives in Ohio
presents with pneumonia
Has been cave diving in the last month

Histoplasmosis
intracellular in macrophages
bird/bat droppings

68

Pt lives in Mississippi
granulomatous nodules in bone/skin
pneumonia

Blastomycosis
broad base budding yeast seen

69

Pt lives in Arizona
Presents with meningitis and pneumonia
Bone/skin involvement

Coccidioidomycosis
Spherules seen
San Joaquin valley/desert

70

Immigrant recently moved from South America
Captain's wheel appearance on microscopy
Pneumonia

Paracoccidioidomycosis

71

In Florida
hypopigmented patches
spaghetti and meatball appearance on KOH prep

Tinea versicolor
Malassezia furfure causes

72

Pt has asthma sx
sputum production (sometimes blood)
recurrent pulmonary infections

Aspergillus fumigatus
45 degree branching hyphae
type IV HS rxn
can also can Aspergillomas (ball in lung)

73

AIDS pt
presents with meningitis
(+) latex agglutination test
recently camping

Cryptococcus neoformans
meningitis in AIDS pts
bird droppings
Soap bubble test in brain

74

Diabetic pt
has acidosis
headaches
necrosis around the nose

Mucor and rhizopus spp
keotacidotic diabetics
cribriform plate/enters brain
black necrotic eschar on face
hyphae branching at 90 degrees

75

AIDS pt below CD4 count of 200
pneumonia, but mobile

Pneumocystis jirovecii
binds alveolar macrophage receptors
methenamine silver stained

76

Gardner
area of ucler with nodules on finger
ascending lymphangitis

Sporothrix schenckii
cigar shaped budding yeast
vegetation, trauma of skin (rose needles)

77

Dysentery(bloody diarrhea) sx
rectal prolapse

Trichuris trichuria
whipworm
football eggs with plugged ends

78

Explosive watery diarrhea
pig farmer
ciliate cysts

balantidium coli

79

Steatorrhea
hx of camping
no blood in stool

Giardia lamblia
steams/lakes/beavers assc
falling leaf motility
bilobed nuclei

80

Bloody diarrhea
RUQ pain
hx of camping

Entamoeba histolytica
liver abscess
flask shaped ulcer

81

AIDS pt
severe watery diarrhea
acid fast (+)

Cryptosporidium
severe in AIDS pts

82

AIDS pt
thrombocytopenia
chronic watery diarrhea

microsporidia

83

Explosive watery diarrhea
Florida
blue fluorescence under UV

cyclospora cayetanensis
tropical disease
acid fast

84

Cerebral abscess on MRI with ring enhancement
calcifications of brain
cats

Toxoplasma gondii
crosses placenta in pregnancy
AIDS pts

85

Recurring fever
African immigrant
hx of chancre
somnolence/anemia

Trypanosoma brucei
African sleeping sickness
Tstse fly vector
antigenic variation

86

Recurrent fevers
anemia
hx of Middle East trip
splenomegaly

Plasmodium vivax/ovale
malaria
anopheles mosquito vector
tx with cholorquine + primaquine for relapsing hypnozoites

87

Young male
fever
stroke
anemia/jaundice

Plasmodium falciparum
malaria
anopheles mosquito vector
infected RBC's occlude brain
tx severe with quinidine/quinine

88

Hemolytic anemia
fever
asplenia
NE U.S.

Babesia
ixodes tick vector (same as Lymes)
maltese cross

89

Trip to Japan
alternating constipation/diarrhea
waterchest nuts consumed

Fasciolopsis buski
intestinal fluke in bile duct

90

Megacolon
Dilated cardiomyopathy
edema around the eye

Trypannosoma cruzi
Chaga's disease
reduviid bug vector
Romana's sign periorbital edema

91

Pancytopenia
hepatosplenomegaly
fevers
dark pigment over some areas of body
Tx with Na+ stibogluconate

Leishmania donovani
visceral leishmaniasis
female sandfly vector
cutaneous (L. braziliense) causes volcano eruptions on skin

92

Greenish vaginal discharge
strawberry cervix
itching/burning

Trichomonas vaginalis
sexual transmission

93

Gray vaginal discharge
Fishy smell
Clue cells

Gardnerellla vaginalis
assc with sexual activity

94

Perianal itching
sticky eggs

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

95

Epigastric pain
Coughing
rural SE

Ascaris lumbricoides
intestinal infection
migrate through lungs in development

96

Anemia
diarrhea/vomiting
AIDS pt

Strongyloides stercoralis
seen in immunocompromised
pneumonitis

97

Anemia due to blood loss
intestinal infection

Ancylostoma duodenale/necator americanus
hookworms
anemia by sucking blood from GI walls

98

Black skin nodules
African immigrant
ocular problems

Onchocera volvulus
female blackfly vector
River blindness

99

Worm seen in conjunctiva
skin swelling

Loa loa
deer/horse/mango fly vectors

100

Elephantiasis bug

Wuchereria bancrofti
female mosquito bector
blockage of lymph

101

Diarrhea
myalgias/edema
heart/lung/brain involvement

Tichinella spiralis
undercooked bear/fox/pork
travel to muscle via blood

102

Pork eater
neuro sx
scolex seen on microscopy

Taenia solium (pork tapeworm)
cysticercosis/neurocysticerosis
caused by eggs only
calcifications of tissue result

103

Eater of raw fish from Great Lakes
increased methylmalonyl-Coa and homocysteine
anemia

Diphyllobothrium latum
Vit B12 deficiency
raw freshwater fish

104

Pt owns dog
cysts seen in lung and liver
lives in Nevada

Echinococcus granulosus
Hydatid cyst disease
in western US
from dog feces

105

Fibrosis of liver/spleen
dx with bladder cell carcinoma
hematuria

Schistosoma haematobium
terminal spine
assc with bladder cancer

106

Clay pipestem fibrosis around portal vein
bloody diarrhea
eats snails

Schistosoma mansoni
lateral spine
Katayoma syndrome

107

Dx with cancer of the bile duct
eats sushi
epigastric pain/jaundice

Clonorchis sinensis
assc with cholangiocarcinoma
pigmented gallstones/bile duct inflammation
undercooked fish

108

Eats crab
pneumonia/hemoptysis
other bacterial infection also present

Paragonimus westermani
coffee bean shaped/crab meat assc
secondary bacterial infection

109

Live attenuated vaccines for virus (6)

Smallpox
Yellow fever
VZV
Sabin's polio virus
MMR
Influenza (intranasal)

110

Killed virus vaccines (4)

Rabies
Influenza (injected)
Salk Polio
HAV

111

Recombinant virus vaccines (2)

HBV
HPV (6,11,16,18)

112

Only ssDNA virus

parvovirus

113

Only circular DNA virus

hepadnaviruses

114

Only dsRNA virus

Reoviridae

115

Only diploid virus

retroviruses

116

Only enveloped virus using nuclear membrane

herpesviruses

117

DNA viruses

HHAPPPPy
Hepadna
Herpes
Adenoa
Pox
Parvo
Papilloma
Polyoma

118

Only DNA virus replicating in cytosol

Poxvirus

119

Only RNA viruses replicating in nucleus

Influenza
Retroviruses

120

Temporal lobe encephalitis
keratoconjunctivitis

HSV-1

121

Assc with Burkitt's Lymphoma and Hodgkin's Lymphoma
fatigue

EBV (HHV-4)
mononucleosis

122

AIDS pt
retinitis
most common virus causing

CMV
seen in immunocompromised pts

123

Cause of roseola

HHV-6
Exanthem subitum

124

Ass with Kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS pts

HHV-8

125

Circular DNA virus
has reverse transcriptase

HBV

126

Pharyngitis
pneuumonia
conjunctivitis

Adenovirus
dsDNA
acut hemorrhagic cystitis assc

127

Apastic crisis with sickle cell disease
slapped cheek fever

Parvovirus B19
ssDNA
5th disease in kids (erythema infectiosum)

128

Cervical cancer assc virus

Papillomavirus 16 and 18

129

AIDS pt
circular dsDNA
mental deterioration

JC virus
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
also BK targets kidney in transplant pts
both are polyomaviruses

130

Replicates in cytosol
DNA virus
flesh colored dome lesions with central dimple

Poxvirus
molluscum contagiosum
only on replicating in cytosol

131

Locations of latency in Herpes viruses:
HSV-1
HSV-2
VZV
EBV
CMV

HSV1-trigeminal ganglia
HSV2-sacral ganglia
VZV-dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia
EBV-B cells
CMV-mononuclear cells

132

Characteristic of CMV infection

Owl's Eyes inclusions

133

Diffuse macular rash
in kids
high fever/seizures

HHV-6
roseola

134

AIDS pt
papular purple lesions
on mouth/GI/respiratory tracts

Kaposi's sarcoma
assc with HHV-8

135

ID of herpes virus

Tzanck test
Cowdry bodies

136

Picornoviruses (5)

Polio
Echovirus
rhinovirus
coxsackievirus
HAV
all RNA viruses

137

(-) stranded RNA viruses (6)

all have RNA-dependent RNA pol
Arenavirus
bunyavirus
paramyxovirus
orthomyxovirus
filovirus
rhabdovirus

138

Common cold
no GI sx
naked virus

Rhinovirus
acid labile
RNA virus

139

Black vomit
jaundice
in South America/Africa

Yellow fever
Aedes mosquito vector

140

1 y/o
segmented dsRNA virus
acute diarrhea
others in daycare also have

Rotavirus
infantile gastroenteritis
villous atrophy

141

Enveloped (-) ssRNA
neuraminidase and hemagglutinin
cough/cold

Influenza
genetic shift/drift seen

142

Postauricular adenopathy
arthralgia
descending rash from head down

Rubella virus (togarvirus)
German measles
TORCH infection

143

Seal like barking cough

Parainfluenza (croup)

144

Paramyxoviruses (4)

Parainfluenza
mumps
measles
RSV

145

Red spots on buccal mucosa
descending maculopapular rash (head down)
paramyxovirus

Measles
Koplick spots (buccal mucosa)
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis years later

146

Swollen parotids and testes
meningitis with not bugs seen in CSF

Mumps (paramyxovirus)
parotitis/orchitis
can cause sterility
Bull neck

147

Negri bodies
found in cerebellum (Purkinje cells)
long incubation period
photophobia/agitation

Rabies virus
bullet shaped
CNS retrograde migration
hydrophobia/paralysis/death
animal bites

148

HAV source

oysters/clams/mussels
fecal oral
acute infection

149

Dane particles
ground glass hepatocytes seen

HBV
Dane particles=active infection
hepatocellular carcinoma risk

150

Increased HCC risk
cryoglobulinemia
chronic infection

HCV
HCC with or w/o cirrhosis

151

delta agent
needs HBV to infect

HDV
causes fulminant liver failure with HBV

152

HEV danger

pregnant women

153

Dx of HCV

EIA for screen
RIBA II for confirmation

154

Significance of hepatitis B Ags/Abs in blood
HBsAg
HBsAb
HBcAg
HBcAb
HBeAg
HBeAb

sAg-hep B infection
sAb-immunity to hep B
cAg-core of HBV
cAb-prior exposure/chronic infection (if IgG)
eAg-high transmissibility/active viral replication
eAb-low transmissibility

155

Genes of HIV

env (gp120/gp41)-attach to T cells/entry
gag (p24)-capsid
pol-reverse transcriptase

156

HIV binding to WBC's

CD4 +CCR5/CXC4 on T cells
CD4 + CCR5 on macrophages

157

Bugs that can mimic appendicitis

Yersinia entercolitica
Nontyphoidal salmonella
Campylobacter jejuni

158

Lg cause of pneumonia infant-3y/o

Chlamydia trachomatis

159

Cause of meningitis in young children

N. meningitidis
H. influenza type B

160

Sx or Rubella

PDA
cataracts
deafness
blueberry muffin rash (descending)
postauricular lymphadenopathy

161

Peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis inhibitors (8)

penicillin
nafcillin (resistant to penicillanse)
ampicillin/amoxicillin
ticarcillin/piperacillin (pseudomonas use)
cephalsporins (resistant)
aztreonam (monobactm resistant)
imipenem
vanycomycin (D-ala D-ala)

162

30s subunit RNA bacterial inhibitors

aminoglycosides (inhibits initiation)
tetracyclines (prevents attachment of tRNA)

163

50s subunit RNA bacterial inhibitors

macrolides (blocks translocation)
chloramphenicol (blocks peptidyltransferase)
clindamycin (blocks peptide transfer)

164

Folic acid pathway inhibitors on bacteria

Sulfonamides (PABA analog)
TMP (inhibits dihydrofolate reductase)

165

DNA inhibitors on bacteria

fluoroquinolones (DNA gyrase)
metronidazole (ROS damage DNA)

166

Tx for vancomycin resistant enterococci

linezolid
streptogramins (quinupristin/dalfopristin)

167

Antifungal meds

Amphotericin B (binds ergosterol)
Azoles (inhibits ergosterol synthesis)
Flucytosine (5-FU conversion)

168

Tx for toxoplasmosis

pyrimethamine

169

Tx for T brucei (sleeping sickness)

suramin (heme stage)
melarsoprol (CNS stage)

170

Tx for T. cruzi (Chagas)

nifurtimox

171

Tx for Leishmaniasis (volcano eruptions/visceral necrosis)

Na+ stibogluconate

172

Tx for plasmodium

cholorquine-nonsevere
quinine/quinidine-severe
primaquine-hypnozoites (vivax/ovale)

173

Tx for flukes (trematodes ie Schistosoma)

Praziquantel

174

Tx for hemiliths

Mebendazole
pyrantel pamoate
ivermectin
diethylcarbamazine

175

MOA of zanamivir/oseltamivir

inhibits influenza neuraminidase
for influenza A and B

176

MOA of ribavirin

inhibits guanine nucleotide synthesis

177

MOA of acyclovir

HSV/VZV thymidine kinase needed, inhibits DNA pol by guanosine analog
not for CMV

178

MOA of ganciclovir

CMV viral kinase needed
Guanosine analog, inhibits DNA pol
for CMV

179

MOA of foscarnet

DNA pol inhibitor
for CMV retinitis in AIDS pt

180

MOA of HIV protease inhibitors

end in -navir
depend on HIV-1 protease (pol gene)
prevent maturation of viruses
Ritonavir boosts others

181

MOA of NRTI's in HIV

inhibit reverse transcriptase binding

182

MOA of NNRTI's in HIV

bind reverse transcriptase

183

MOA of raltegravir

inhibits HIV intregration into host cell chromosome
inhibits HIV integrase

184

Use of interferon alpha in disease

chronic Hep B/C
Kaposi's sarcoma

185

Use of interferon beta in disease

Multiple sclerosis

186

Use of intereferon gamma in disease

NADPH oxidase deficiency