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Flashcards in Micro Deck (81):
1

Symptoms of west nile

Fever

Rash

Enchplitis with possible flaccid paralysis

Meningitis

2

What is the leading cause of meningitis in adults

Strep pneumo

3

What is the second leading cause if meningitis in people under 60

N meningitidis

4

What are most common neonate meningitis

Strep b

Ecoli

Listeria

5

What does the ventral posterior lateral nucleaus receive input from

Spinothalamic

Dorsal column

6

What does the ventral posterior medial nuc receive input from

Trigemininal

7

What is the inheritence of essential tremor

AD

Most common movement disorder

8

How do you treat essential tremor

Beta blocker

9

Who cannot use abacavir, how does the drug work, what does it treat

HLA B 57 cannot use

NRTI

Rx for HIV

10

Systemic candida is most often due to

PMN deficiency

11

A tapeworm infection that affects the liver, lungs, brain, and other organs.

Hydadit cyst

12

Most common cause of hydadit cyst

Echinococcus granulosis (a tapeworm)

Comes from sheep and dogs

Rupture leads to anafalactic shock

13

Define micro reassortment

Gene exchange by crossing over

14

acute liver failure- rapid development of acute liver injury with severe impairment of the synthetic function and hepatic encephalopathy in a patient without obvious, previous liver disease.

Fulminant hepatitis

seen in less than 1% of hep infections

15

This is the most common helminthic infection in the USA

Enterobiasis (aka scratchy butt)

Organism is a pinworm

16

How does anthrax toxin work

increases cAMP casuing inflamation of mediatisnum

can fatally occlude airway

17

What is the characteristic finding of anthrax cutanous lesions

painless ulcer

Black scab

18

What causes leishmaniasis and what are s/s

Leishmania donovani

come from bit of a sand fly

s/s ab pain,distension, anorexia, wt loss, fever

19

What are the actinomyces buzzwords

Mandibular lesion
thick yellow exudate
long branching filament

*seen with dental procedure

20

WHo typically gets pseudomonas osteomyelitis

IV drug users

21

Cryptococcus neorformans basic buzzwords

AIDS defining (usually under 50)

Causes meningoencephalitis

Heavily Encapsulated, non dimorphic yeast

Can come from pigeon droppings

22

this is the uptake of genes from the enviroment by bacteria

Transformation

23

What is the best way to seperate fungal and bacterial meningitis

CSF Findings

PMN= bacteria

Lymph= fungal

24

What is the genome of EBV

Linear
DS DNA
+ Envelope

25

This marker can help you determine someone may be an alcoholic, thus narrowing pneumonia ddx to klebseliia

y- glutamyltransferase

26

What is h pylori tripple therapy

PPI

Clarithromycin

Amoxicillin/Metronidazole

27

This is a weird test you can do for ricketsia

Weil Felix agglutination test

(weil vs felix tennis game)

28

What are the two types of reovirus

Rotavirus- #1 virus for kid diarrhea

Coltivirus

29

This is the cause of colorado tick fever

Coltivirus

30

Coltivirus symptoms

colorado tick virus

Myalgia, fever, vomiting

31

Gram positive motile rod with b hemoysis

Listeria mono

32

What is a major way your body gets rid of listeria

Cell mediated immunity
Infants do not have
Therefor more susciptable

33

Why can E. coli establish a CSF infection

K1 capsular antigen allows it to survive CSF and bloodstream

34

This causes release of tnfa and il1 by activating macs

Lipid a

35

Another name for shiga to in

Verotoxin

36

This is a ring enhancing lesion without toxo

Primary central nervous system lymphoma

almost always from EBV

37

What is primary cns lymphoma

Ring enhancing
EBV
seen in HIV (2nd to toxo)
B cell cancer

38

Large linear ulcers in esphogus is

HSV

Cmv

39

80 percent of hepatic access in USA is from

Bacteria

Often s aures, E. coli, kleb

Undeveloped is parasite

40

What does shiga toxin do

Inactivates 60 s ribosomal subunit

41

Asthmatic on steroids with eosinophilia and transient pulm infiltrates and bronciectasis

Asprogilus hypersenstivity

ABPA

Stuff like strongaloides sometimes can present similar but no bronchectaisis

42

How does strep viridans avoid the immune system

Produce dextran using sucrose

Helps colonize

Likes to live in teeth and valves

43

What do we use alcohol swabs? Like how do they work

Alcohol disorganizes lipid membrane structures

Kills bacteria (but not spores), fungus, virus

44

In alcoholics where do aspirates usually end up

UPPER LOBES

They usually asparate while laying down

45

Ulcerative or vesicular lesion on genitals
Significant painful regional LAD

Chlamydia trachomatis

46

How do you catch campylobacter

Domestic animals

Contaminated food

47

An old TB cavity now shows a round mass inside

Asprigillis fumigatus

Likes to form fungus balls in lungs

May be asympt or show hemptosis

48

What kind of drug is cefuroxime

2 cephlosporin

Inhibits cell wall

49

What kind of drug is chloramphenicol

Inhibits 50 s

Chlorinated pool sketchy

50

What kind of drug is ciprofloxacin

Fluoroquinolone

Inhibits DNA gyrase

51

Aspirating stomach content is likely to lead to

Chemical pneumonitis >>> abscess

52

What do most people aspirate

Oropharyngeal contents- anarobic

Creates foul smelling sputum

53

What is the ETEC toxin most similar to

Cholera toxin

54

Hematin and NAD are required for growth of

Haemophilus influ

Hematin= 10
NAD= 5

55

What are the three treatments for c diff

Metro

Vanc

Fidaxomicin (bacterialcidal, like a macrolide)

56

What does strep viridans like to bind

Fibrin and platelets, which aggregate at sites of endothilial trama

57

What is Thayer Martin vcn

Vanc
Colistin
Nystatin

Selective medium for n gonhreah

Inhibits everything but gon and fungi

58

What is the capsul of anthrax like

Polymer of d glutamic acid resides
Inhibits phagocytosis

59

-Thick walled spherules containing Endo spores

-Dimorphic

Seen in deserts of USA and Mexico


Coccidioides immatus

Asymptomic, flu like, or pneumonia can be see.

60

Separate hyphae branch at 45
Mold form only

Asprigilus fumigatus

61

Broad based budding
Thick, doubly refractive wall

Blastomyces dermatitdis

62

Thick capsule
India ink stain
Causes meningitis usually

Cryptococcus neoformis

63

Small oval yeast in macs
Smaller than RBC

Histoplasma capsulatum

64

Broad ribbonlike hyphae with rare septations

Rhizopus

65

Conidia and hyphae classically seen

Causes pustular ulcerated lesions

Localized to wound or lymph

Sporothrix schenckii
Rose gardener disease

66

In neutropenia, the most common fungal infections are

Asprigilus- fever, CP, cough, hemoptosis

Candida- rarely respitory

67

This is classically seen in DM
Sinus infection, can spread to orbits or brain

Rhizopus--> mucormycosis

68

What is hep e genome

Naked

ss RNA

Fecal oral

Infects pregers

69

What do we use primaquine for

Malaria
P vivax and ovale

Eradicates intrahepatic stages aka hypnozoites (these cause relapse)

70

Mycobacterium

Inhibits fusion of Lysosome to phagsome

Sulfatide

71

Mycobacterium

Establishes virulence through pmn inhibition, mitochondria destruction, release of tnf

Cord factor- mycoside

Makes mycos grow as serpentine cords

72

Hat is the H flu satellite phenomena

H flu likes to grow with s aureus

S aureus produces factor 5 and 10

73

Buds off through nuclear membrane to get lipid bilayer

Herpes family

74

What is the hep b vacciene made of

Recombanat surface protein

75

How does diptheria vacciene work

IgG vs protein aka extortion B

A= active. Inhibits ribosome

B= binding. Allows a to penetrate

76

What blood complication exists for mycoplasma

Call membrane of M pneumo and erythrocytes are very similar

IgM cross reacts (hence the igm agglutination)

77

What is the mortality of Mucor Species

even with frogs (amphotericin) and surgery mortality is very high

78

What causes progressive multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

JC Virus

PML lesions in brain--> AMS, ataxia, motor issues, DEATH in 6 months

79

How do you treat diptheria

Diptheria anti toxin (passive imunization) ** most effect on prognosis

Antibiotics

Active immunization

80

How does one diagnosis strongaloides infection

Rhabditiform larva in the stool

Eggs and adults are only seen in intestinal biopsy

81

What are most common CGD bugs

S aurues

Burkholderia cepacia

Serratia

Nocardia

Asprigilus