Micro - Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro - Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites Deck (81):
1

lipoteichoic acid =

gram +, induces TNF and IL-1

2

Exception to polysaccharide capsule

B. anthracis = D-glutamate polypeptide

3

dipiclonic acid

heat stability of spores

4

LOS (not LPS)

Nisseria
Campylobacter
Bordatella
H. flu

5

SHiN

Encapsulated - vaccines
IgA protease
transformation (can uptake naked DNA)

6

Urease +

Proteus
Crypto
H. pylori
Ureaplasma
Nocardia
Klebsiella
S. epidermidis
S. saprophiticus

7

Catalase +

Nocardia
Pseudomonas
Listeria
Aspergillus
Candida
E. coli
Serratia
staph (all)
H. pylori

8

M protein

GAS, prevents phagocytosis, similar to human cellular protein (mimickry)

9

Inactivate EF-2

c. diptheriae
p aeruginosa

10

Remove adenine from rRNA inhibiting 60s

Shigella
EHEC

*shiga (like) toxin induces cytokine release which is what causes HUS

11

toxin increases GC (and cGMP)

ST of ETEC = decreased NaCL resorption

12

Bacteria that increase cAMP + mechanism

Overactivate AC via:
ETEC LT - ?
cholera = activate Gs
Bordatella = inhibit Gi
B. anthracis = mimics AC

13

Bacteria with toxins encoded in lysogenic phage (specialized transduction)

Shiga-like (EHEC)
Botulinum
Cholera
Diptheria
Erythrogenic strep pyo

14

PYR +

S. pyo
E. fecalis (enterococci)

15

Superantigens: MOA and examples

TSST-1 (s. aureus)
Exotoxin A (s. pyo)

Binds APC MHC-II to TCR of Th cell --> polyclonal T-cell activation

16

Ferments mannitol

S. aureus

17

s. pneumo vs. H flu MC infections

s. pneumo = MOPS (sinusitis)
H. flu = EMOP (epiglottitis)

18

rusty sputum

s. pneumo

19

scarlet fever features

phage-encoded (erythrogenic toxin)
sandpaper rash
post sore throat
strawberry tongue
circumoral pallor
subsequent desquamation

20

s. agalactiae

CAMP factor - enlarges s. aureus zone of hemolysis
Hippurate test +

21

acute endocarditis: causes

normal valve = s. aureus
IVFA = s. aureus or candida
Damaged valve = s. viridans
post GI/GU procedure = gp D enterococci (E. fecalis/E. Fecium]
With colon cancer = strep bovis

22

diptheria s/s

pseudomembrane
arrhythmias
myocarditis
LAD

23

metachromatic (blue and red) granules with + Elek test

c. diptheria

24

c. perfringens toxin

toxin a = lecithinase
double-zone hemolysis

25

flu like --> fever, pulmonary hemmorhage, mediastinitis, shock

pulmonary anthrax (wool-sorters)

26

Only gram + with endotoxin

listeria

27

Nocardia vs actinomyces rx

nocardia = sulfonamides (cutaneous or pulmonary)
actinomyces = penicillin (draining sinuses)

28

negative PPD with what:

anergy (steroids, AIDS, malnutrition)
sarcoidosis

29

MAC prophylaxis

azithromycin, when CD4

30

TB virulence factors

1) Cord factor: prevents macrophage maturation and induces TNF-a release
2) Sulfatides: surface, inhibit P-L fusion

31

fast lactose fermenters

e. coli
klebsiella
enterobacter

32

slow lactose fermenters

serratia
citrobacter

33

non-lactose fermenters

oxidase + = pseudomonas
oxidase - = salmonella + proteus (H2S); + shigella + yersinia

34

EBM growth:

purple/black = lactose fermenter
blue/green sheen = e. coli

35

nisseria gonorrhea in cells:

PMNs

36

Pontiac fever

mild legionella - flu-like

37

EPEC

pediatric watery diarrhea - flattened villi, NO toxin

38

e. coli that does not ferment sorbitor

EHEC

39

STI with donovan bodies

Klebsiella granulomatosis

40

E. coli K1 capsule causes:

neonatal meningitis

41

S. typhi vs shigella

S. typhi - hematogenous, monocytes, watery diarrhea
shigella - cell-to-cell, PMN, bloody diarrhea

42

pseudoappendicitis from puppies, pork, or contaminated milk

yersinia

43

Random congenital syphilis stuff

Rhagades (mouth angle scars)
CN VIII deafness
short maxilla

44

coxiella burnetti

Q fever
animal amniotic fluid
spores
obligate IC
MC = pneumonia
also MCC of culture - endocarditis

45

chlamydia rx

azithromycin or doxycyclin

46

mycology granuloma

blastomycoses - broad-based

47

earthquakes

coccidio; spherule with endospores

48

spaghetti and meatballs

malassezia
degrade lipids which makes acid which destroys melanocytes

49

tenia unginum

nails

50

cells preventing candida

Th prevent superficial infection
PMN prevent dissemination

51

type of aspergillus and condition:

invasive = CGD, AIDS
allergic = CF, asthma
Aspergilloma = TB

52

latex agglutination test

crypotcoccus

53

PCP prophylaxis and rx

Prophylaxis

54

Protozoa GI:
- giardia
- entameba histolytica
- cryptosporisium

- giardia - camping, watery
- entameba histolytica - bloody, anchovy paste liver, flask-shaped GIT ulcers
- cryptosporisium - AIDS (give nitazoxanide); acid fast oocysts, watery

55

babesiosis

ixodes tick
fever and hemolytic anemia
maltese cross in RBCs

56

Nematodes (roundworms) in GIT
- rx = bendazole

- Enterobius vermicularis
- Ascaries lumbricoides - iliocecal obstruction
- strongyloides stercoralis - soil to skin, PUD-like intestinal infection
- ancylostoma duodenale/necator americanus = hookworm, anemia
- Trichinella spiralis - pork, striated muscle cysts, N/V, PERIORBITAL EDEMA, MYALGIA

57

Nematodes in TISSUE

- oncocerca volvulis - blackfly, river blindness, hyperpigmented skin, allergy; ivermectin
- loa loa - deer/horse/mango fly, conjunctive, DEC
- wucheria - female mosquitoes, eleph. in 1yr., DEC
- toxocara canis - visceral larva migrans

58

Nematode routes:

EATT - ingest
SANd - feet
LOW - bite

59

Cestodes (tapeworms)
rx = praziquantel and/or albendazole

- taenia solium - cysts in pork = intestinal; eggs = neurocysercircosis
- diphyllibothrium - raw fish, B12
- ecchinococcus granulosis - eggs in dog feces from them eating sheep; hydatid liver cyst

60

Trematodes (flukes)
- rx = praziquantel

shistosoma
- s. hematobium = urinary - SCC bladder and pulmonary HTN
- s. mansoni = liver
- s. japonicium = liver

Clonorchis sinensis
- raw fish, biliary tract inflammation = brown pigment stones; cholangiocarcinoma

61

Rx of C. diff

Metro (mild-mod.) - high systemic abs
Vanco (severe) - static, low systemic abs
Fidaxomycin (recurrent) - cidal, low systemic abs

62

what does strep viridans bind to on valves?

fibrin-platelet aggregates (damaged valves)

63

s. pneumo and bile

bile soluble .: clears turbidity of s. pneumo growth (clearing of turbidity)

64

Function of Vi salmonella

capsule, prevents phagocytosis

65

Motile bugs

Salmonella
pseudomonas
Trichomonas

66

Intraabdominal infections MC bugs

B. Fragilis
E. coli

67

M protein

Virulence factor of strep pyo

- prevents phagocytosis
- cytotoxic to PMNS
- mediated bacterial attachment
- molecular mimicry

68

C. perfringes food poisoning via

reheated meat

69

Yersinia enterolytica

daycares, pseudoappendicitis

70

MCC pneumonia kids 4weeks-18yrs

RSV!
Then mycoplasma, C. trachomatic, C. pneumoniae, S. pneumo

71

MCC pneumonia adults 18-40

MYCOPLASMA
c. pneumoniae
s. pneumonia

72

MCC pneumonia adults 40-65

S. PNEUMO
H. flu
Anaerobes, viruses, mycoplasma

73

MCC eldery

S. PNEUMO
influenza
anaerobes, h. flu, gram - rods

74

Rx listeria

ampicillin

75

Osteomyelitis in IVDA

pseudomonas, s. aureus, candida

76

congenital toxo triad

chorioretinitis
intracerebral calcifications
hydrocephalus

77

Congenital rubella triad:

PDA (or pulmonary A. hypoplasia)
Cataracts
Deafness

78

Congenital CMV

deafness
seizures
petechial rash

79

Congenital HIV

recurrent infections and diarrhea

80

HSV-2

encephalitis
herpetic lesions

81

LVG

C. trachomatis 1-3