Flashcards in Micro - Clinical Bacteriology ( Gram - Diplococci & "Coccoid" Rods) Deck (21):
What kind of bacteria are Neisseria? What are the species of Neisseria?
Gram-negative diplococci; Gonorrhoeae and Meningitidis
What do the species of Neisseria ferment?
Both ferment glucose but only meningocococci ferment maltose; Think: MeninGococci ferment Maltose and Glucose, Gonococci ferment Glucose
Where can N. gonorrhoeae be found on blood smear?
Often intracellular (within neutrophils)
Compare/Contrast Neisseria meningococci and gonococci in terms of the following: (1) Polysaccharide capsule (2) Maltose fermentation (3) Vaccine.
GONOCOCCI - (1) No polysaccharide capsule (2) No maltose fermentation (3) No vaccine (due to rapid antigenic variation of pilus proteins); MENINGOCOCCI - (1) Polysaccharide capsule (2) Maltose fermentation (3) Vaccine (none for type B)
How are the different species of Neisseria transmitted?
N. gonorrhoeae - sexually transmitted; N. meningitidis - respiratory & oral secretions
What conditions do Neisseria gonococci cause?
(1) Gonorrhea (2) Septic arthritis (3) Neonatal conjuctivitis (4) PID (5) Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
What conditions do Neisseria meningococci cause?
(1) Meningococcemia (2) Meningitis (3) Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
What is the treatment for Neisseria gonococci? What kind of coinfection is of concern with regards to treatment?
Ceftriaxone + (azithromycin or doxycycline) for possible chlamydia coinfection
What is the treatment for Neisseria meningococci?
Ceftriaxone or penicillin G
What are the options of prophylaxis for Neisseria meningococci? To whom should it be given?
Rifampin, ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone; Close contacts
What conditions does Haemophilus infuenzae cause?
(1) Epiglottitis ("cherry red" in children) (2) Meningitis (3) Ottis media (4) Pneumonia; Think: haEMOPhilus
What kind of bacteria are Haemophilus influenzae?
Small gram-negative (coccobacillary/"coccoid") rod
How is H. flu transmitted?
What kind of H. flu causes the most invasive disease?
Capsular type B
What kind of H. flu strains cause mucosal infections? What are examples of the kinds of mucosal infections that they cause?
Nontypeable strains; Ottis media, conjuctivitis, bronchitis
What kind of enzyme/virulence factor do H. flu and both species of Neisseria produce?
What media is used to culture H. flu? What is another way to grow H. flu?
Chocolate agar with required growth factors V (NAD+) and X (hematin); can also be grown with S. aureus, which provides factor V
How is meningitis due to H. flu treated?
What is given for H. flu meningitis prophlaxis, and to whom is it given?
Rifampin; Close contacts
What is contained in the H. flu vaccine? To what ages is it given?
Type B capsular polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate) conjugated to diphtheria toxoid or other protein; Given between 2 and 18 months of age