Micro Parasites Flashcards Preview

► Med 11 - USMLE 1 > Micro Parasites > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro Parasites Deck (40):
1

Giardia lamblia
What kind of organism?
What does it cause? Presentation?
Who gets it?
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Anaerobic parasitic protozoan
Giardiasis: bloating flatulence, foul-smelling, fatty diarrhea
Campers/Hikers
Cysts in water
Trophozoite or cyst in stool
Metronidazole

2

Entamoeba histolytica
What kind of organism?
What does it cause? Presentation?
Histo
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Anaerobic parasitic protozoan
Amebiasis: bloody diarrhea, Liver abscess (anchovy paste exudate), RUQ pain
Flask-shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures
Cysts in water
Serology +/or trophozoites (w/ RBCs in cyto) or cysts (w/ multiple nuclei) in stool
Metronidazole. Iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers

3

Cryptosporidium
What kind of organism?
Who gets it?
Presentation
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Parasitic protozoan
AIDS pts
Severe diarrhea. Watery diarrhea in non-immunocompromised
Cysts in water
Cysts on acid fast stain
Prevention (filtering water). Nitazoxanide in immunocompetent hosts

4

Toxoplasma gondii
What is it?
What kind of pt gets them?
What do they cause?
Imaging?
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan
HIV pts
Brain abscess. Seen as ring-enhancing brain lesions on CT/MRI
Congenital toxoplasmosis = classic triad of Chorioretinitis (eye), Hydrocephalus, Intracranial calcification
Cysts in meat or oocysts in cat feces (crosses placenta)
Serology, Biopsy
Sulfadiazine, Pyrimethamine

5

Naegleria fowleri
What is it?
What does it cause?
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Protists parasite
Rapidly fatal meningeoencephalitis
Swimming in freshwater lakes. Enters via cribiform plate
"Nalgene bottle filled with freshwater containing Naegleria"
Amoebas in spinal fluid
Amphotericin

6

Trypanosoma brucei
Sub species?
What kind of organisms is it?
What does it cause?
Presentation
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense
Protozoan
Africa sleeping sickness
Enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (antigenic variation), Somnolence, Coma
Tsetse fly (a painful bite)
Blood smear
Suramin for blood borne disease. Melarsoprol for CNS penetration

7

Plasmodium
Species? What kind of organism?
What do they cause? Presentation?
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

P vivax/ovale, P falciparum, P. malariae
Protists
Malaria: fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly
Mosquito (Anopheles)
Blood smear, Trophozoite ring form, RBC schizont with merozoites
Begin w/ Chloroquine (blocks plasmodium heme polymerase). If resistent use Mefloquine. If life threatening use IV quinidine and test for G6PD deficiency

8

Plasmodium vivax/ovale
Presentation
Treatment

48 hour cycle (fever on 1st and 3rd day - tertian)
Dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver
Add primaquine for hypnozoite and test for G6PD deficiency)

9

Plasmodium falcipartum
Presentation
Histo

Severe, irregular fever pattern.
Parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), Kidney, and Lungs
Banana shaped

10

Plasmodium malariae presentation

72 hour cycle (quartan)

11

Babesia
What kind of organism?
What does it cause? Presentation?
Location?
Risk?
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Protozoan parasite
Babesiosis: fever and hemolytic anemia
NE USA
Asplenia --> risk of severe disease
Ixodes tick (same as Lyme disease)
Blood smear, ring form, "Maltese cross," PCR
Atovaquone + Azithromycin

12

Trypanosoma cruzi
What kind of organism?
What do they cause? Presentation?
Location
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Protozoan parasite
Chagas' Disease: Dialted cardiomyopathy, Megacolon, Megaesophagus
South America
Reduviib bug (painless bite)
Blood smear
Nifurtimox

13

Leishmania donovani
What kind of organism?
What does it cause? presentation?
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Protozoa
Visceral Leishmaniasis: Spiking fever, HSM, Pancytopenia
Sandfly
Macrophages containing amastigotes
Sodium Stibogluconate

14

Trichomonas vaginalis
What kind of organism
What does it cause? Presentation
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment

Anaerobic flagellated protozoan
Vaginitis: Foul smelling greenish discharge, itching and burning
Sexual (does not form cysts)
Trophozoites on wet mount
Metronidazole for pt and partners (prophylaxis)

15

Enterobius vermicularis
What kind of organism?
Name
Transmission
Disease
Diagnosis
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm). Pinworm
Contaminated eggs
Intestinal infection causing anal pruritus
Scotch tape test
Bendazoles or Pyrantel Pamoate
"worms are BENDy, treat with meBENDzole"

16

Ascaris lumbricoides
What kind of organism?
Name
Transmission
Disease
Diagnosis
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm). Giant Roundworm
Fecal-to-oral
Intestinal infection
Eggs visible in feces under microscope
Bendazoles or Pyrantel Pamoate

17

Strongyloides stercoralis
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm)
Larvae in soil penetrate skin
Intestinal infection causing vomiting, diarrhea, anemia
Ivermectin or Albenazole

18

Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus
What kind of organism? Name?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm). Hookworm
Larvae penetrate skin
Intestinal infection causing anemia by sucking blood from intestinal walls
Bendazoles or Pyrantel Pamoate

19

Dracunculus medinensis
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm)
Drinking water
Skin inflammation and ulceration
Slow extraction of worms

20

Onchocerca volvulus
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Mechanism
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm)
Female blackfly bite
Hyperpigmentated skin and river blindness
"Black flies, Black skin nodules, Block sight"
Allergic reaction to microfilaria posible
Ivermectin
"IVERmectin for rIVER blindness"

21

Loa Loa
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm)
Deer, horse, or mango flies
Swelling in skin, worms in conjunctiva
Diethylcarbamazine

22

Wuchereria bancrofti
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm)
Female mosquito
Blocks lymphatic vessels --> elephantiasis ~1 year after bite
Diethylcarbamazine

23

Toxacara canis
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Nematode (roundworm)
Eggs
Visceral larva migrans
Albendazole or mebendazole

24

Nematodes Routes of Infection

"get sick if EAT these"
Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichinella
"Get these in your feet from SANd"
Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator

25

Taenia solium
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Cestodes (tapeworm)
Larvae or eggs ingested in undercooked pork
Larvae: Intestinal infection, Praziquantel
Egg: Cysticercosis, Neurocysticercosis
Goes to Brain, Muscles, Heart, and Skin
Praziquantel, -bendazoles for neurocysticercosis

26

Diphyllobothrium latum
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Cestodes (tapeworm)
Ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish
VitB12 deficiency --> anemia
Praziquantel

27

Echinococcus granulosus
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Cestodes (tapeworm)
Ingestion of eggs from dog feces
Cysts in liver. Anaphylaxis of Ags released (surgeon's preinject with EtOH to kill cysts before removal
-bendazoles

28

Schistosoma
What kind of organism?
Host
Transmission
Disease
Treatment

Trematodes (flukes)
Snails
Cercariae (larva) penetrate skin
Liver and spleen granulomas, fibrosis and inflammation
Chronic infection with S haematobium can lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder d
Praziquantel

29

Clonorchis sinensis
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Associated with?
Treatment

Trematodes (flukes)
Undercooked fish
Biliary tract inflammation --> pigmented gallstones
Cholangiocarcinoma
Praziquantel

30

Paragonimus westermani
What kind of organism?
Transmission
Disease
Associated with?
Treatment

Trematodes (flukes)
Undercooked crab meat
Lung inflammation and secondary bacterial infection with hemoptysis
Praziquantel

31

Brain cysts, Seizures

Taenia solium (Cysticercosis)

32

Liver cysts

Echinococcus granulosus

33

VitB12 deficiency?

Diphyllobothrium latum

34

Biliary tract disease, Cholangiocarcinoma

Clonorchis sinensis

35

Hemoptysis

Paragonimus westermani

36

Portal HTN

Schistosoma mansoni

37

Hematuria, Bladder Cancer

Schistosoma haematobium

38

Microcytic Anemia

Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus

39

Perianal pruritus

Enterobius

40

Helminths

Cestodes, Trematodes, Nematodes