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Microbiology First Aid USMLE Step 1 > Micro Path > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro Path Deck (171):
1

Staphylococcus aureus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Acute endocarditis, osteomyelitis, toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, rapid onset food poisoning (meats, mayonnaise, custard). Cavity lung lesions.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Catalase (+), coagulase (+), clusters. MRSA found in anterior nares of CARRIERS. G+ cocci in clusters.

2

Staphylococcus epidermidis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *IV catheter and prostehtic device infections with biofilms.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Catalase (+), coagulase (-), novobiocin sensitive.

3

Staphylococcus saphrophyticus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *UTIs (2nd most common cause).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Catalase (+), coagulase (-), novobiocin resistant.

4

Streptococcus pneumoniae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Granulomatous vasculitis with eosinophilia. Most often presents with ASTHMA*, sinusitis, skin lesions, and peripheral neuropathy (e.g., wrist/foot drop, extreme pain); can also involve heart, GI, and kidneys.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Catalase (-), optochin sensitive, bile soluble. Rusty sputum. Alpha hemolytic (green). Cannot be cultured in bile. Quellung reaction.

5

Virdians group streptococci (S. mutans, S. sanguis) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Dental caries, subacute bacteria endocarditis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Catalase (-) optochin resistant, not bile soluble. Alpha hemolytic (green).

6

Streptococcus pyogenes symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Sandpaper like rash (Scarlet fever), rheumatic fever (doesn't occur following a cutaneous skin infection; only with sore throat), impetigo, cellulitis, pharyngitis, erysipelas, post-Streptococcal glomerulonephritis (hematuria, type III hypersensitivity).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Bacitracin sensitive. Beta hemolytic (clear). G+ cocci in chains.

7

Streptococcus agalactiae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Neonatal meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Bacitracin resistant. Beta hemolytic (clear).

8

Enterococcus faecalis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (VREF). Endocarditis following genitourinary procedures.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gamma hemolytic (no hemolysis). Growth in bile AND 6.5% NaCl.

9

Streptococcus bovis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Sepsis and subacute endocarditis; associated with colon cancer.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gamma hemolytic (no hemolysis). Growth in bile but not 6.5% NaCl.

10

Corynebacterium diphtheriae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Pseudomembranous pharyngitis (gray-white). Lymphadenopathy. Toxin results in cardiac and CNS necrosis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod with metachromatic granules. Spore forming. Cysteine-tellurite agar.

11

Clostridium tetani symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Tetanus after traumatic implantation. Spastic paralysis, trismus (lockjaw), and risus sardonicus.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod. Spore forming.

12

Clostridium botulinum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Food poisoning (canned food), flacid paralysis in babies (unpasteurized honey).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod. Spore forming.

13

Clostridium perfringens symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Watery diarrhea (reheated meat), gas gangrene, necrotizing enteritis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod. Spore forming.

14

Closteridium difficle symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Pseudomembranous colitis (due to clindamycin, ampilcillin)| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod. Spore forming.

15

Bacillus anthracis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Painless black eschar with edematous ring (cutaneous). Spore inhalation leading to rapid fever, pulmonary hemorrhage, mediastinitis, and shock (pulmonary/Woolsorters' disease).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod. Spore forming.

16

Bacillus ceres symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Food poisoning (reheated rice).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod. Spore forming.

17

Listeria monocytogenes symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Amnionitis, sepsis, spontaneous abortion in pregnant women. Neonatal meningitis (vaginal transmission), elderly meningitis. Mild gastroenteritis (unpasteurized milk, ice cream).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive rod. Non-spore forming. Faculative intracellullar microbe (actin rockets). Endotoxin (only G+!).

18

Actinomyces israelii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Oral/facial abscesses with sinus tracts.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram positive anaerobic rod. Sulfur granules.

19

Nocardia asteroides symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Pulmonary infection in immunocompromised, spreads to brain.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Partially acid fast. Gram positive aerobic rod.

20

Mycobacterium tuberculosis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Primary (lower lobes/Ghon complex), secondary (cavitary lesion upper lobes). Pott's disease (vertebral bodies). Meningitis (basilar pons). Nephritis, GI, LAD.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Acid fast (Ziehl-Neelsen stain). PPD skin testing (type IV hypersensitivity). Lowenstein medium.

21

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Disseminated disease in AIDS.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Acid fast.

22

Mycobacterium leprae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *From armadillos. Infects skin and superficial nerves (likes cool temperatures). Leonine facies.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Acid fast.

23

Neisseria gonorrhoeae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Septic arthritis, neonatal conjunctivitis, creamy purulent discharge, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (pelvic inflamatory disease) urethritis, cervicitis, prostatitis, epididymitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative diplococci. Maltose non-fermenter. Glucose fermenter. Thayer-Martin agar.

24

Neisseria meningitidis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Meningitis (college-age), Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (adrenal hemorrhage, DIC, septic shock)| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative diplococci. Maltose and glucose fermenter. Thayer-Martin agar.

25

Haemophilus influenzae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Epiglottitis, otitis media, penumonia. | *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Chocolate agar. Requires factors V (NAD+) and X (hematin).

26

Haemophilus ducreyi symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Painful genital ulcer (chancroid), inguinal adenopathy| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

27

Legionella pneumophila symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Severe pneumonia (older, male, smokers) or pontiac fever (mild flulike symptoms in young person). Also diarrhea. Caused by AC water contamination. | *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod (stains poorly). Silver stain. Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE) with iron and cysteine. Detection via urinalysis. Hyponatremia.

28

Pseudomonas aeruginosa symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Pneumonia (cystic fibrosis), sepsis (black necrotic lesions, ecthyma gangrenosum), burn victims, external otitis, UTI, osteomyelitis (IV drug user, diabetics), folliculitis. Spread via water (hot tubs).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Oxidase positive. Lactose nonfermenter. Procyanin pigment. Grapelike odor.

29

Serratia maracescens symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *UTIs| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Slow lactose fermenter (pink on MacConkee). Red pigment.

30

Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Slow lactose fermenter (pink on MacConkee). Produces red pigment.

31

Bordetella pertussis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Whooping cough. Lymphocytosis (!).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Bordet-Gengou or Regan-Lowe agar.

32

Escherichia coli (EHEC) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Dysentery (undercooked meat), hemolytic uremic syndrome. Neonatal meningitis (K1 capsular antigen), UTIs (#1 cause of cystitis, pyelonephritis), pneumonia, septic shock.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Lactose fermenter (pink on MacConkee). Doesn't ferment sorbitol or produce glucuronidase.

33

Escherichia coli (ETEC) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Traveler's diarrhea. Neonatal meningitis (K1 antigen), UTIs (#1 cause of cystitis, pyelonephritis), pneumonia, septic shock.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Lactose fermenter (pink on MacConkee).

34

Escherichia coli (EIEC) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Dysentery (invasion and necrosis). Neonatal meningitis (K1 antigen), UTIs (#1 cause of cystitis, pyelonephritis), pneumonia, septic shock.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Lactose fermenter (pink on MacConkee).

35

Escherichia coli (EPEC) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Diarrhea in children. Neonatal meningitis (K1 antigen), UTIs (#1 cause of cystitis, pyelonephritis), pneumonia, septic shock.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Lactose fermenter (pink on MacConkee).

36

Klebsiella pneumoniae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Pneumonia (alcoholics or diabetics). UTIs.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Lactose fermenter (pink on MacConkee). Red currant jelly sputum. Lung abscesses.

37

Salmonella typhi symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Bloody diarrhea. Only found in humans (chronic reseeding via galbladder). Higher infectious dose than shigella (10^5). Typhoid fever (diarrhea, headache, rose spots on abdomen.) Osteomyelitis in sickle cell anemia.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative motile rod. Oxidase negative. Lactose nonfermenter. H2S producing.

38

Salmonella (not typhi) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Blood diarrhea (poultry, meat, eggs). Animal hosts.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative motile rod. Oxidase negative. Lactose nonfermenter. H2S producing.

39

Shigella dysenteriae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Bloody diarrhea, dysentery (day-care centers). Only found in humans. Lower infectious dose than salmonella (10). Toxin can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative non-motile rod. Oxidase negative. Lactose nonfermenter. Not H2S producing.

40

Yersinia enterocolitica symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Can mimic Crohn's or appendicitis. Gastroenteritis (pet feces/puppies, contamined milk or pork, day-care centers).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

41

Helicobacter pylori symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Peptic and duodenal ulcers. Increases risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and marginal zone lymphoma.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Urease positive. Urea breath test.

42

Leptospira interrogans symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Leptospirosis (flu-like symptoms, fever, headache, abdominal pain, jaundice, photophobia, conjunctivitis). Weil's disease (severe jaundice, aztoemia, fever, hemorrhage, anemia). Spread by animal urine. Kidney failure + hepatmegaly.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Spirochete.

43

Borrelia burgdorferi symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Lyme disease. Erythema chronicum migrans (stage 1), neurologic/Bell's palsy plus cardiac/AV nodal block (stage 2), migratory mono/poly-arthritis (stage 3). Spread by Ixodes/deer tick (shared with Babesia).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Spirochete.

44

Borrelia recurrentis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Epidemic relapsing fever. Tick bite followed by fever, muscle pain and headache in recurrent episodes.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Spirochete.

45

Treponema pallidum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Syphilis. Painless chancre (primary), maculopapular rash on palms and soles plus condylomata lata (secondary), gummas plus aoritis, tabes doraslis, Argyll Robertson pupil (tertiary). Hydrops fetalis, sabershins, saddle nose, CN8 deafness, notched teeth, short maxilla, mulberry molars (congenital).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Spirochete. Dark field microscopy. VLDR and FTA-ABS testing. Broad-based ataxia, positive Rombert, Charcot joints, stroke without hypertension (tertiary).

46

Treponema pertenue symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Yaws (cutaneous, bone, and joint infection leading to keloids and severe limb deformities). Found in tropics.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Spirochete.

47

Bartonella henselae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Cat scratch fever. Bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative faculative intracellular rod. Stellate granulomas.

48

Brucella melitensis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Brucellosis (hepatic granulomas, migratory arthritis, myalgia), undulant fever. Caused by unpasteurized goat milk/cheese.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative faculative intracellular rod.

49

Francisella tularensis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Tularemia (ulceroglandular [most common], glandular, oropharyngeal, pneumonic, oculoglandular, and typhoidal). Caused by tick bite, rabbits, deer. | *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative faculative intracellular rod. Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE).

50

Yersinia pestis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Plague. Spread by prairie dog and rodent fleas.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative faculative anaerobic rod.

51

Pasteurella multocida symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Cellulitis from animal bites. Osteomyelitis in children.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative faculative intracellular rod.

52

Gardnerella vaginalis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Bacterial vaginosis; noninflammatory. Associated with Mobiluncus infections.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Malodorous gray vaginal discharge (fishy smell); positive whiff test. Clue cells (stippled vaginal epithelialum). Vaginosis at ph of 5-6.

53

Rickettsiae rickettsii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Headache, fever, rash (vasiculitis). Tick vector. Rash starts on palms and soles and migrates to trunk.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Positive Weil-Felix test.

54

Rickettsiae typi symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Endemic typhus. Headache, fever, rash (vasiculitis). Flea vector. Rash starts centrally and spreads outward, no palm or sole involvement.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Positive Weil-Felix test.

55

Rickettsiae prowazekii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Epidemic typhus. Headache, fever, rash (vasiculitis). Human body louse vector. Rash starts centrally and spreads outward, no palm or sole involvement.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Positive Weil-Felix test.

56

Ehrlichia chaffeensis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Headache, fever, rash (vasiculitis). Tick vector. Human monocytic erlichiosis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Positive Weil-Felix test.

57

Anaplasma phagocytophilum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis; infects neutrophils. Fever and headache.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Positive Weil-Felix test.

58

Coxiella burnetii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Headache, fever, but no rash (Q fever). Aerosol vector. Can survive extracellularly. Atypical pneumonia.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Negative Weil-Felix test.

59

Chlamydia trachomatis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Neonatal conjunctivitis/pneumonia (types D-K), nongonnococal urethritis (D-K), pelvic inflammatory disease (D-K), ectopic pregnancy (D-K), lymphogranuloma venereum (L1,L2,L3). Reiter's syndrome.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Elemntary body (infectious), reticulate body (replication). Obligate intracellular organsim (requires host ATP). LGV has positive Frei test.

60

Chlamydia pneumoniae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Atypical (walking) pneumonia. Spread by aerosols. Associated with atherosclerosis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Elemntary body (infectious), reticulate body (replication). Obligate intracellular organsim (requires host ATP).

61

Chlamydia psittaci symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Avian reservoir. Atypical (walking) pneumonia. Spread by aerosols.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Elemntary body (infectious), reticulate body (replication). Obligate intracellular organsim (requires host ATP).

62

Mycoplasma pneumoniae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Atypical (walking) pneumonia. Age s agar. Cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia (IgM). Only bacteria containing cholesterol in membrane. No cell wall. Fried egg appearance on agar.

63

Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Granuloma inguinale (donovanosis); ulcerating sclerotic granulomas of the penis. "Beefy-red."| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

64

Moraxella catarrhalis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Otitis media, bronchitis, sinusitis laryngitis. Bronchopneumonia in COPD patients.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative, oxidase positive rod.

65

Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Associated with struvite stones in urinary tract, UTIs.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Gram negative rod. Oxidase negative. Lactose nonfermenter. Swarming motility. Urease positive. H2S producer.

66

Bacteroides fragilis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Anaerobic abscesses. Normal gut flora (>E.coli).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Anaerobic rod.

67

Vibrio cholera symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Rice-water diarrhea, self-limiting.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *ADP ribosylation of Gs. Increased cAMP leading to increased pumping of Cl- into gut and decreased sodium absorption.

68

Vibrio vulnifcus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Food poisoning (contaminated seafood)| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

69

Vibrio parahaemolyticus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Food poisoning (contaminated seafood), wound infections (contaminated water or shellfish).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

70

Campylobacter jejuni symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Bloody gastroenteritis (main cause in the world), Guillain-Barre syndrome| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Growth at 42C. Oxidase positive. Common/S-shaped.

71

Ureaplasma urealyticum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *UTIs.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Urease positive. No cell wall. Cholesterol in membrane.

72

Histoplasma capsulatum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Bat or bird feces from Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. Pneumonia in spelunkers. | *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Macrophages filled with intracellular yeasts. Thermally dimorphic (mold in soil, yeast in tissue @37C).

73

Blastomyces dermatitidis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *East of the Mississippi. Pneumonia with skin and bone dissemination.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Broad-base budding yeasts. Granulomatous nodules. Thermally dimorphic (mold in soil, yeast in tissue @37C).

74

Coccidioides immitis, Coccidioides posadasii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Southwestern US (posadasii), California (immitis). Pneumonia and meningitis; disseminates to bone and skin. | *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Spherules filled with endospores (infectious). Not thermally dimorphic.

75

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Latin American immigrant. Mucocutaneous ulcers that can progress to lymph nodes and lungs.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Budding yeast with captain's wheel formation. Thermally dimorphic (mold in soil, yeast in tissue @37C).

76

Malassezia furfur symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Tinea versicolor (hypopigmented skin patches). | *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Spaghetti and meatball appearance on KOH prep.

77

Microsporum spp. symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Tinea pedis, cruris, corporis, capitis. Pruritic lesions with central clearing resembling a ring. Pets are a reservoir.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Mold hyphae in KOH prep, nor thermally dimorphic.

78

Trichophyton spp. symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Tinea pedis, cruris, corporis, capitis. Pruritic lesions with central clearing resembling a ring.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Mold hyphae in KOH prep, nor thermally dimorphic.

79

Epidermophyton spp. symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Tinea pedis, cruris, corporis, capitis. Pruritic lesions with central clearing resembling a ring.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Mold hyphae in KOH prep, nor thermally dimorphic.

80

Candida albicans symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Superifical or systemic fungal infection. Oral or esophageal trush (AIDS, diabetics, neonates, steroids). Endocarditis (IV drug user). Vaginal candidiasis (at normal pH ~4.0)| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Yeasts with pseudohyphae, germ tubes.

81

Aspergillus fumigatus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, lung cavity aspergilloma (fungus balls). Associated with immunosuppression, chronic granulomatous disease.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Acute angle branching (45), septate hyphae. Fruiting bodies.

82

Cryptococcus neoformans symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Found in soil, pigeon droppings. Meningitis in immunocompromised.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Encapsulated yeast. India ink or mucicarmine stain. "Soap bubble" lesions in brain. Sabouraud's agar.

83

Mucormysosis, Zygomycosis (Rhizopus spp.) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, leukemia. Pneumonia, necrotic rhinocerebral lesions, frontal lobe abscesses.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Wide-angle branching (90), nonseptate hyphae.

84

Pneumocystis jiroveci symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Diffuse interstitial pneumonia. AIDS when CD4 <200.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Methenamine silver stain of lung tissue. Diffuse bilateral infiltrates with ground-glass appearance.

85

Sporothrix schenckii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Traumatic implantation by rose thorn. Local ulcer with ascendign lymphangitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Cigar-shaped budding yeast in pus.

86

Giardia lamblia symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Foul-smelling diarrhea/fatty stools. Consumption of contaminated water sources by backpackers/hikers.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

87

Entamoeba histolytica symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Liber abscesses (reddish brown), RUQ pain, bloody diarrhea (dysentery). Spread via water contaminated by human feces.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *RBCs within cytoplasm of entamoeba.

88

Cryptosporidium spp. symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Watery diarrhea in AIDs patients.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Partially acid fast stain.

89

Isospora belli symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Watery diarrhea in AIDs patients.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Partially acid fast stain.

90

Toxoplasma gondii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Ring enhancing brain lesions, chorioretinitis. Classic triad of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications (congenital form). Cat feces or undercooked meat.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Protozoa.

91

Naegleria fowleri symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis. Enters via cribiform plate. Found in freshwater lakes.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Protozoa.

92

Trypanosoma gambiense/rhodesiense symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *African sleeping sickness; lymphadenopathy, recurring fever, somnolence, coma. Tsetse fly vector.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Protozoa.

93

Trypanosoma cruzi symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Chagas' disease; dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus, Romaña's sign (periorbital swelling). Reduviid bug vector.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Protozoa.

94

Leishmania donovani symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar); spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia. Sandfly vector. Members of military stationed in Middle East.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Protozoa. Macrophages containing amastigotes (no flagella).

95

Plasmodium vivax/ovale symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Fever every other day. Has erythrocyte and hepatic forms.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

96

Plasmodium falciparum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Severe, daily fever cycles. Parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys, and lungs. Only has erythrocyte form. Anopheles vector.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Signet ring in RBC.

97

Plasmodium malariae symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Only has erythrocyte form.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

98

Babesia microti, Theileria microti symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Fever, hemolytic anemia. Ixodes tick vector (shared with Lyme disease). Northeastern US.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Maltese cross and signet ring forms in RBCs.

99

Trichomonas vaginalis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Vaginitis: foul-smelling, greenishing discharge, itching and burning. Strawberry-colored mucosa.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Vaginitis at a pH of 8.0.

100

Enterobius vermicularis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Perianal pruritus, especially in young children.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode. Scotch tape test.

101

Ascaris lumbricoides symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Intestinal infection.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

102

Trichinella spiralis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Found in underocoked meat, usually pork. Muscle pain (due to larvae cysts), periorbital edema.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

103

Strongyloides stercoralis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Infects cutaneously (via feet). Intestinal infection (anemia, diarrhea) with lung phases. Hyperinfection when you administer corticosteroids.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

104

Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Larva penetrate skin of feet; intestinal infection can cause iron deficiency anemia| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

105

Dracunculus medinensis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *In drinking water; skin inflammation nad ulceration| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

106

Ochocerca volvulus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Transmitted by blackflies; hyperpigmented skin and river blindness| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

107

Loa loa symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Deer/horse/mango fly vector. Swelling in skin (can see worm crawling in conjunctiva).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

108

Wuchereia bancrofti, Brugia malayi symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Elephantitis due to blockage of lymphatic vessels. Mosquito vector.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

109

Toxocara canis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Food contamined with eggs. Retinal granulomas leading to blindness and visceral larva migrans.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Nematode.

110

Taenia solium symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Intestinal tapeworm. Neurocysticercosis; brain cysts, seizures, "swiss cheese" appearance. Ingestion of undercooked pork.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Cestode.

111

Diphyllobothrium latum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Intestinal tapeworm. B12 deficiency (megaloblastic anemia). Ingestion of raw freshwater fish.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Cestode.

112

Echinococcus granulosus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Liver cysts; rupture of cysts results in anaphylaxis. Eggs in dog feces.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Cestode.

113

Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Hematuria, squamous cell carcinoma of bladder (S. haematobium), portal hypertension (S. mansoni). Snails are hosts.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Trematode.

114

Clonorchis sinensis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Biliary tract disease (pigmented gallstones), cholangiosarcoma. Undercooked skin.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Trematode.

115

Paragonimus westermani symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Hemoptysis. Crab meat.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Trematode.

116

Herpes simplex virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Oral lesions, keratoconjunctivitis, temporal lobe encephalitis (HSV-1); genital lesions, neonatal herpes (HSV-2).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped. Tzanck test (detects multinucleated giant cells). Cowdry A inclusions.

117

Cytomegalovirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Pneumonia in immunocompromised, congenital defects (earing loss, seziures). Infectious mononucelosis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped. Heterophile negative. Owl's eye appearance.

118

Varicella zoster virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Chickenpox (multiple papules of different ages), shingles, encephalitis, pneumonia. Transferred via respiratory secretions.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped. Tzanck test (detects multinucleated giant cells). Cowdry A inclusions.

119

Epstein-Barr virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Infectious mononucleosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Infects via CD21.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped. Heterophile positive. Abnormal cytotoxic T cells blood smear.

120

HHV-6 symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Roseola (exanthem subitum); high fevers for several days follows by diffuse macular rash (can cause seizures).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped.

121

HHV-8 symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Kaposi's sarcoma; AIDs related cancer.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped.

122

Hepatitis B virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Hepatocellular carcinoma. Fulminant hepatitis when co-infected with HepD. Spread by sexual or parenteral routes. Workers in renal dialysis units (risk factor).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (partial circular), enveloped. Reverse transcriptase. HBsAg (carrier state), HBsAb (provides IMMUNITY), HBcAg (core), HBcAb IgM (positive during window period, recent disease), HBcAb IgG (chronic disease), HBeAg (indicates HIGH transmissibility).

123

Adenovirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Conjunctivitis "pink eye", pneumonia, pharyngoconjunctival fever, gastroenteritis, acute hemorrhagic cystitis (in children).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), nonenveloped.

124

Parvovirus B19 symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Aplastic anemia with hematological disorders, arthritis in adults, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease, slapped cheeks, lace-like or reticular pattern) in children. Causes hydrops fetalis in congeintal infections. Replicates in bone marrow (RBCs).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *ssDNA (linear), noneveloped.

125

Human papillomavirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Cervical, anal, and oral epithelial carcinoma. Condylomata acuminata (genital warts).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (circular), nonenveloped.

126

JC virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with AIDs.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (circular), nonenveloped.

127

BK virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Reactivation with immunsuppression due to organ transplant (renal).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (circular), nonenveloped.

128

Merkel cell polyomavirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Merkel cell carcinoma.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (circular), nonenveloped.

129

Variola (smallpox) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Multiple papules of same stage.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped. Biggest DNA virus. Only DNA virus that replicates in cytoplasm.

130

Vaccinia symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Cowpox, "milkmaid's blisters". Used as a smallpox vaccine.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped. Biggest DNA virus. Only DNA virus that replicates in cytoplasm.

131

Molluscum contagiosum symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Poxvirus; pearly, dome-shaped lesions on skin with dimpled center. Seen in people with immunosuppression.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *dsDNA (linear), enveloped. Biggest DNA virus. Only DNA virus that replicates in cytoplasm.

132

Rotavirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Watery, loose diarrhea (children; #1 cause); villous destruction with atrophy leads to decreased absorption of sodium and water. Transient lactose intolerance.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Rotavirus. dsRNA, nonenveloped. Icosahedral. Segmented. One of the only two RNA viruses that replicates in nucleus.

133

Coltivirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Colorado tick fever; infects hematopoeitic cells.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Rotavirus. dsRNA, nonenveloped. Icosahedral. Segmented. One of the only two RNA viruses that replicates in nucleus.

134

Poliovirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Poliomyelitis. Aseptic meningitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Picornavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped. RNA is translated into one large polypeptie that is cleaved.

135

Echovirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Aseptic meningitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Picornavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped. RNA is translated into one large polypeptie that is cleaved.

136

Rhinovirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Common cold.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Picornavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped. RNA is translated into one large polypeptie that is cleaved.

137

Coxsackie A virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Herpangia (blisters on hand, foot, mouth). Hand, foot, and mouth disease (along with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, secondary syphilis). Oral ulcers. Aseptic meningitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Picornavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped. RNA is translated into one large polypeptie that is cleaved.

138

Coxsackie B virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Dilated cardiomyopathy (S3 sounds, dyspnea, limb edema). Myocarditis. Aseptic meningitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Picornavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped. RNA is translated into one large polypeptie that is cleaved.

139

Hepatitis A virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Acute viral hepatitis. Spread via fecal-oral route. No carriers, short incubation. Anicteric in children; icteric and more severe in adults.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Picornavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped. RNA is translated into one large polypeptie that is cleaved. IgM HAVAb (active infection), IgG HAVAb (immunity).

140

Hepatitis E virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Acute viral hepatitis. Spread via fecal-oral route. No carriers, short incubation. High morality rate in pregnant women. Water-borne epidemics.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Hepevirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped. Patchy necrosis of liver.

141

Norwalk virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Viral gastroenteritis; rapid onset. Cruise ships.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Calicivirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, nonenveloped.

142

Hepatitis C virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Transmitted via IV drug use. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic viral hepatitis leading to cirrhosis. Carriers.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Flavivirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

143

Yellow fever symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos (Aedes). High fever, black vomit, and jaundice.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Flavivirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped. Councilman bodies (acidophilic inclusions) seen in the liver. Greatly elevated AST (vs ALT).

144

Dengue fever symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus. Back and bone pain, petechiae, high fever, rash. Hemorrhagic fever occurs upon a second exposure to the virus.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Flavivirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

145

St. Louis encephalitis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus. Encephalitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Flavivirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

146

West Nile virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus. Encephalitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Flavivirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

147

Rubella symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *German (3-day) measles; fever, postauricular lymphadenopathy, arthralgia (in adults, especially pregnant women), fine truncal rash (begins at head and move down). PDA (or pulmonary artery hypoplasia/stenosis, septal defects), cataracts, deafness, "blueberry muffin" rash (congenital infection).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Togavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

148

Eastern equine encephalitis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus. Encephalitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Togavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

149

Western equine encephalitis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus. Encephalitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Togavirus. +ssRNA, linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

150

HIV symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Bacillary angiomatosis (Bartonella), HPV, HSV, VZV, Kaposi's sarcoma, primary CNS lymphoma, PML, CMV, toxoplasma, cryptococcus, cryptosporidium, MAC, pneumocystis, thrush, oral hairy leukplakia (EBV), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, invasive cervical carcinoma. Infects via CCR5 initiall and later CXCR 4.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Retrovirus. +ssRNA (diploid), linear/icosahedral, enveloped. Screen with ELISA and confirm with Western blot. p24 (gag gene; capsid; initial spike, then high at AIDs onset), gp41 and gp120 (env gene; envelope). Microglia form multinucleate giant cells.

151

HTLV-1 symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Adult T-cell leukemia, aggressive cutaneous lesions.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Retrovirus. +ssRNA (diploid), linear/icosahedral, enveloped.

152

Coronavirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *SARS and the common cold.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Coronavirus. +ssRNA, linear nonsegmental/helical, enveloped.

153

Influenza A, B, C symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Flu-like symtpoms (arthralgia, myalgia, fever). Pneumonia in immunocompromised.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Orthomyxovirus. -ssRNA, linear segmental/helical, enveloped. One of the only two RNA viruses that replicates in nucleus. A and B can undergo genetic reassortment (genetic shift; pandemic). Also undergoes random mutation (genetic drift; epidemic).

154

Parainfluezna symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Croup (seal-like barking cough)| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Paramyxovirus. -ssRNA, linear nonsegmental/helical, enveloped.

155

Respiratory syncytial virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Bronchiolitis, pneumnia in infants.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Paramyxovirus. -ssRNA, linear nonsegmental/helical, enveloped. Infects respiratory epithelium via F (fusion) proteins.

156

Metapneumovirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Common cold.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Paramyxovirus. -ssRNA, linear nonsegmental/helical, enveloped. Infects respiratory epithelium via F (fusion) proteins.

157

Rubeola (measles) symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Rash (begins at head and moves down), cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik spots on buccal mucosa (blue-white). Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis occurs at age ~10 if child wasn't immunized.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Paramyxovirus. -ssRNA, linear nonsegmental/helical, enveloped. Infects respiratory epithelium via F (fusion) proteins.

158

Mumps symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Parotitis, meningitis, orchitis/oophoritis (sterility), no rash.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Paramyxovirus. -ssRNA, linear nonsegmental/helical, enveloped. Infects respiratory epithelium via F (fusion) proteins.

159

Rabies symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Fulminant: malaise, agitation, photophobia, hydrophobia leading to coma and death. Dumb rabies variant (paralytic, depression, lethargic). Long incubation. Bat, raccoon, and skunk bites. | *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Rhabdovirus. -ssRNA, linear nonsegemental/helical, enveloped. Negri bodies. Bullet shaped virus.

160

Ebola/Marburg hemorrhagic fever symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Filovirus. -ssRNA, linear nonsegemental/helical, enveloped.

161

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Arenavirus. -ssRNA, circular segmental/helical, enveloped. Ribosomes in virus.

162

Lassa fever encephalitis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Encephalitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Arenavirus. -ssRNA, circular segmental/helical, enveloped. Ribosomes in virus.

163

California encephalitis symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus. Encephalitis.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Bunyavirus. -ssRNA, circular segmental/helical, enveloped.

164

Sandfly/Rift Valley fever symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Bunyavirus. -ssRNA, circular segmental/helical, enveloped.

165

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Bunyavirus. -ssRNA, circular segmental/helical, enveloped.

166

Hantavirus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Arbovirus. Hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Bunyavirus. -ssRNA, circular segmental/helical, enveloped.

167

Hepatitis D virus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Fulminant hepatitis when co-infecting with Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). Can be a carrier.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Deltavirus. -ssRNA, circular nonsegemental/helical.

168

Tropheryma whippelii symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Causes Whipple's disease. Altered mental status + GI sx + arthralgia.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *Positive PAS stain

169

Lactobacillus symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Normal vaginal flora.| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

170

Prions symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *Rapid onset (~6 months or less) spongioform encephalopathy, dementia, ataxia, and death. Inherited (Gerstmann), sporadic (CJD), acquired (kuru).| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *

171

Scabies symptoms, lab values/clinical findings?

*Symptoms: *"7 year itch"; extreme itching/allergic reaction; tunneling skin lesions (burrowing s shaped or linear lesions)| *Lab Values/Clinical findings: *