Flashcards in Micro Quiz Deck (98):
Naked, ico, dsDNA circular virus with STD
Intranuclear inclusions bodies surrounding by halos with STD
CMV Owl's eyes
Iodine staining intraepithelial inclusion bodies with STD
Lactose fermenting gram negative bacillus with GU symptoms
Pear shaped flagellated protozoa with GU symptoms
Trachoma vaginalis (strawberry red cervix)
Pleomorphic GNRs with GU symptoms
Haemophylis ducreyii with painful soft genital lesion (chancroid)
Spirochetes on dark field microscopy with GU symptoms
Treponema pallidum (syphilis) with chancre or rash
Motile trophozoites with GU symptoms
Trachoma vaginalis (strawberry red cervix with frothy green discharge)
Clue cells with GU symptoms
Bacterial vaginosis 2/2 to gardnerella vaginalis overgrowth (malodorous thin grey discharge worse after menses)
Gram - diplococci with GU symptoms
Neisseria gonorrhea (PMN rich discharge and mucosal erosions)
Obligate intracellular pathogens with GU symptoms
Chlamydia trachomatis (PID)
White cottage cheese in GU area
Candida albicans growing with germ tubes
Stellate granulomas in an arm lesion
Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease). Gram - rod can disseminate in pregnant and immunocompromised. Give cipro or doxy normally and azithromycin macrocodes to pregnant.
Gram - coccobacillus with undulating fever
Brucella from unpasteurized cheese.
Histoplasma capsulatum disease in immunocompromised patients. This is an obligate IC parasite, living in histiocytes. Spores breathed in from bird and bat droppings. See it in Ohio and Mississippi River Valley.
Sporothrix schenkii with causes subQ nodules that track up lymphatic tracts. Dimorphic fungus grows as mold in humans.
Eyelid inflammation with pannus formation and IC inclusion bodies
Chlamydia trachomatis - Serotypes A-C causes trachoma. Leads to pannus formation, scarring, and distortion of eyelids. Grow in tissue culture to identify reticulate bodies )(IC). Elementary bodies are infective and EC.
Serotypes D-K - Conjunctivitis and genital infection
Serotypes L1-L3 - Lymphogranuloma venereum.
Conjunctivitis in a newborn with gram neg dipococci
Conjunctivitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies and naked capsid DNA virus
Adenovirus. Three Ps and a C. Pharyngitis, Pneumonia, Pink eye, and hemorrhagic cystitis. Uses HA to bind cells.
Large, box car shaped gram + cocci that forms spores that look like bamboo shoots.
1) Malignant pustule which ruptures to form black eschar and surrounding edema
Cigar shaped yeast
Gram - rod that requires cysteine
GNR with bipolar staining
Yersinia pestis (bubonic plague) which black necrotic lymph nodes at site of bite
A large spirochete which forms a lesion on the extremity
Borrelia burgdorferi - Lyme disease erythema migrans, transmitted by Ixodes
Meningitis in AIDs
Cryptococcus neoformans. Polysaccharide coat. India ink and mucicarmine stain. Bird droppings. Sabouarud agar.
Broad based budding yeast
Blastomyces dermatiditis. Live EC. Skin and bone lesions and found in the Eastern US.
Budding yeast in pilot's wheel
Paracoccidiomycosis. Common in Central and South America. Primary pulmonary disease.
IC yeast in macrophages
Histoplasma capsulatum. Usually in immunocompromised, like AIDs. Cause pneumonia.
Septate hyphae at 45 degree angles
Aspergillus fumigatus. Acute angles, allergic BP aspergillosis, aspergilloma, invasive aspergillus, amphotericin B, aflatoxin.
Coccidiodes immitus. Seen in SW US. Causes 1) desert rheumatism 2) desert nodules (erythema nodosum), 3) valley fever
GI disease in an AIDS patient
Cryptosporidum -- acid fast oocytes, treat with nitazoxanide.
Cavitated lung lesions in an alcoholic
Klebsiella pneumonia with 4 As.
1) Aspiration pneumonia
2) Abscess in lung
Causes currant jelly sputum and mucoid colonies
Maculopapular rash with mono Tx?
Amoxicillin with CMV mononucleosis
dsDNA with complex lipid envelope
Poxvirus with smallpox and molluscum contagiosum.
Staph epidermidis (sens) from saprophyticus
Strep pneumo (sens) from viridans group strep
Strep pygo (sens) from strep agalactiae
Coagulase production seen in which two organisms?
Staph aureus and yerisinia pestis
Distinguishes between diptheroid (diphtheria like flora in mouth) and corynebacterium diphtheria, which contains B prophage DNA, which creates exotoxin.
ADP ribosylation of EF2 by exotoxin
Beta prophage DNA which makes toxin, Black colonies
Corynenacterium on Cystine-tellurite agar
EF2 is inhibited by ADP ribosylation, ELEK test
Granules are metochromatic on GNR
Reactive Reiter arthritis
Knee infection that grows on chocolate agar
2) Maltose fermentation
3) Vaccine (because of antigenically variable pili)
1) STD with PID (cetriaxone)
2) Septic arthritis
3) Neonatal conjunctivitis (erythromycin)
4) Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
Two viruses with complementation?
Hep B and Hep D
Herpes, Measles, Mumps, RSV
Campylobacter and Salmonella
Bad bottling practices
Clostridium Botulinum (bottles)
Preformed heat labile toxin which blocks Ach at NMJ
Adult --> toxin
Baby --> spores
Cross in an RBC
Babesiosis with fever, hemolytic anemia. Asplenia increases risk.
Transmitted by Ixodes = Borrelia Bergdorferi, babesia, and anaplasma.
Smear: Maltese cross and rings in RBCs
Tx: Atovaquone + Azythro.
Tick bite with photophobia and retro-orbital pain
Dermacentor andersoni and Colorado Tick Fever Virus.
Dermacentor also transmits tularemia.
West nile virus mening and encephitis.
As patient with HIV becomes symptomatic, how does serology change?
Viral titer increases as virus overwhelms immune system
GP24 Ab falls as CD4 cells killed
GP41 and 120 may rise because they only require IgM
Genital lesion followed by rash on palms?
Syphilis (treponema pallidum).
Primary - painless chancre
Secondary - rash on palms and soles and condyloma lata
Tertiary - Gummas, aortitis, Argyll Robertson, Neurosyphilic with tabes dorsalis.
Dx VDRL and later FTA-ABS.
Congenital - Saber shin, mulberry molars, hutchinson's incisors, saddle deformity
Tx Penicillin G
+ Weil-Felix Rxn?
Rickettsia Ricketsii = Rocky Mtn Spotted Fever
Most commonly in NC
Rash on ankles spread to trunks, palms, and soles
Obligate IC organisms needing Coa and NAd+
Rash on the palms or soles?
CARS - use your palms to drive CARS
Coxscackie A (hand foot mouth)
Rocky Mtn Spotted Fever
Edema factor (adenylate cyclase fluid loss) and lethal factor (endoprotease apoptosis)
Organisms with toxins similar to cholera toxin?
Cholera toxin, E coli heat labile toxin, and a pertussis all activate Gs, increase camp, and increase fluid loss from intestine.
Organism with toxin similar diphtheria toxin?
Diptheria toxin and Pseudomona auriginosa both use the EF2 inhibiting toxins.
Clostridium perfringens toxin?
Alpha toxin which is a lecithinase
Inhibits release of GABA and glycine inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Distinguishes Group B Strep from other streptococci.
Causes of PID?
Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae.
With hepatitis B, only the Anti HbS antigen?
Indicates immunization with HbSAg
With hepatitis B, what differentiates acute infection versus window?
3) IgM against the core
1) No HepBsAg or Antibody against the surface
2) Antibody against the envelope
3) IgM against the core
What serologic markers indicate chronic HBV?
2) IgG against the core
What indicates recovery?
Only antibodies and no antigens
Lyme disease signs, symptoms, Tx?
Borrelia bergdorferi -- Ixodes tick.
Flue +/- facial palsy
Arthritis (mono or migatory)
Neurologic (Enceph, Polyneur, Facial palsy)
Tx with Doxy or ceftriaxone
Short germinating, nonseptate hyphae?
Candida albicans. Only fungus to grow as germ tube.
What can give you glomerulonephritis with reduced complement?
1) SLE glomerulonephritis and
2) Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (type III HS)
What is the toxic part of LPS which causes shock?
Lipid A. It stimulates release of IL1, IL6 and TNF.
Why does the window period happen in hepatitis?
Because antibody to the surface rises, binds the surface antigen, and removes it from the blood stream via precipitation of Antigen-antibody complexes. This results in neither being detected in the blood for a short period.
Gram + or Staph and Strep
Gram - are Neisseria
All Gram -. Rickettsii and Chlamydia.
Actinomyces and Nocardia
All Gram -. Borrelia, Treponema, and Leptospira.
No CW and Sterols
CW of Mycobacteria?
Mycolic acid and lipid rich.
Bacteria that do not gram stain well?
These microbes may lack real color.
Treponema (too thin so use dark field microsopy with fluoresence)
Mycobacteria (mycolic acid detected with acid fast)
Mycoplasma (no cell wall)
Legionella (intracellular so use silver)
These bugs really try my patients
Fungi, Legionella, and H Pylori
Acid fast? (Zeels Neeson)
Nocardia and Mycobacteria
Pass the sugar. Stain glycogen for Whipple disease (Tropheryma Whipplei)
Chocolate wirth X heme and V nad?
Neisseria. V + P - and N fungi.
Diptheria. Also grows on Loffler.
TB grows on?
M. pneumonia grows on?
Eaton with cholesterol
E coli grows on?
Pink on macconkey and green on EMB.
If you see obligate aerobe?
Nagging pests must breathe.
If you see obligate anaerobe?
What makes them anaerobic?
What antibiotic can't you use on them?
Anaerobes can't breathe air.
Lack catalase or SOD so susceptible to oxidative damage.
Can't use aminoglycosides because they require O2 to enter cell.
Rickettsii and Chlamydia.
You lie low, be safe for now man.
Hi (H flu)
Protein A and Protein M
A is for S Aureus. Binds Fc portion of Ab to prevent opsonization.
M is for Strep Pyogenes to prevent phagocytosis.