Micro - Systems (Osteomyelitis, UTIs, & Vaginal infections) Flashcards Preview

FA - Microbiology > Micro - Systems (Osteomyelitis, UTIs, & Vaginal infections) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro - Systems (Osteomyelitis, UTIs, & Vaginal infections) Deck (40):
1

What pathogen should be assumed as cause of osteomyelitis if no other information is available, and why?

S. aureus (most common overall)

2

What pathogen is a likely cause of osteomyelitis if the patient is sexually active, and why?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (rare), septic arthritis more common

3

What 2 pathogens are a likely cause of osteomyelitis if the patient is a diabetic and/or IV drug user?

(1) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2) Serratia

4

What pathogen is a likely cause of osteomyelitis if the patient has sickle cell?

Salmonella

5

What 2 pathogens are a likely cause of osteomyelitis if the patient has history of a prosthetic joint replacement?

(1) S. aureus (2) S. epidermidis

6

What pathogen is a likely cause of osteomyelitis if the patient has vertebral involvement? What is this condition called?

Mycobacterium tubuerculosis (Pott disease)

7

What pathogen is a likely cause of osteomyelitis if the patient has a history of cat and/or dog bites?

Pasteurella multocida

8

In what patient population does most osteomyelitis occur?

Most osteomyelitis occurs in children

9

What are 2 nonspecific findings that may be observed with osteomyelitis?

Elevated CRP and ESR observed but nonspecific

10

What are the imaging considerations/options regarding osteomyelitis?

Can be subtle on radiographs; same lesion more easily seen on MRI

11

What are 5 components of the presentation of cystitis?

Cystitis presents with (1) dysuria (2) frequency (3) urgency (4) suprapubic pain (5) WBCs (but not WBC casts) in urine

12

What is the primary cause of cystitis?

Primarily caused by ascension of microbes from urethra to bladder

13

What are 2 causes of and/or contexts for cystitis in males?

Males - (1) Infants with congenital defects (2) Vesicoureteral reflux

14

What is a cause of and/or context for cystitis in elderly?

Elderly - enlarged prostsate

15

What is the primary cause of pyelonephritis?

Ascension (of microbes from urethra) to kidney results in peylonephritis

16

What are 6 components of the presentation of pyelonephritis?

Presents with (1) fever (2) chills (3) flank pain (4) costovertebral angle tenderness (5) hematuria (6) WBC casts

17

In which patient population are urinary tract infections more common, and why? How much more common are they in this patient population?

Ten times more common in women (shorter urethras colonized by fecal flora)

18

Besides female gender, what are 6 other factors that predispose patients to urinary tract infections?

Other predisposing factors include: (1) obstruction (2) kidney surgery (3) catheterization (4) GU malformation (5) diabetes (6) pregnancy

19

What diagnostic marker is positive in bacterial UTI? What diagnostic marker is positive for gram-negative bacterial UTI?

Diagnostic markers: leukocyte esterase test (+) = bacterial UTI; nitrite test (+) = gram-negative bacterial UTI

20

What bug is the leading cause of UTI?

Escherichia coli

21

Which agar distinguishes Escherichia coli, and how does it appear on this agar?

Colonies show green metallic sheen on EMB agar

22

What is the second leading cause of UTI in sexually active women?

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

23

What is the 3rd leading cause of UTI?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

24

What distinguising product do some strains of serratia marcescens produce?

Some strains produce a red pigment

25

Name 3 UTI bugs that are often/usually nosocomial and drug resistant.

(1) Serratia marcescens (2) Enterobacter cloacae (3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa

26

In what unique fashion does Proteus mirabilis appear on agar, and why?

Motility causes "swarming" on agar

27

Name a urease positive UTI bug.

Proteus mirabilis

28

With kind of stones are associated with Proteus mirabilis?

Associated with struvite stones

29

With what pigment and odor is Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated?

Blue-green pigment and fruity odor

30

What do each of the following UTI diagnostic makers suggest if positive: (1) Leukocyte esterase (2) Nitrite test

(1) (+) Leukocyte esterase = bacterial (2) (+) Nitrite test = gram-negative bugs

31

What UTI bugs would a positive versus negative test suggest?

(+) Urease test = urease-producing bugs (e.g., Proteus, Klebsiella); (-) Urease test = E. coli, Enterococcus

32

What are 2 defining features of Klebsiella pneumoniae's appearance?

Large mucoid capsule and viscous colonies

33

Name 3 common vaginal infections.

(1) Bacterial vaginosis (2) Trichomoniasis (3) Candida vulvovaginitis

34

Of the following common vaginal infections, which is associated with inflammation: (1) Bacterial vaginosis (2) Trichomoniasis (3) Candida vulvovaginitis?

(1) No inflammation (2) Inflammation (3) Inflammation

35

What are the defining signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (in terms of inflammation and discharge)?

No inflammation; Thin, white discharge with fishy odor

36

What are the defining signs and symptoms of Trichomoniasis (in terms of inflammation and discharge)?

Inflammation; Frothy, grey-green, foul-smelling discharge

37

What are the defining signs and symptoms of Candida vulvovaginitis (in terms of inflammation and discharge)?

Inflammation; Thick, white "cottage cheese" discharge

38

What are the lab findings that distinguish each of the following common vaginal infections: (1) Bacterial vaginosis (2) Trichomoniasis (3) Candida vulvovaginitis?

(1) Clue cells, pH > 4.5 (2) Mobile trichomonads, pH > 4.5 (3) Pseudohyphae, pH normal (4.0-4.5)

39

What is the treatment for each of the following common vaginal infections: (1) Bacterial vaginosis (2) Trichomoniasis (3) Candida vulvovaginitis? In which condition is treatment of sexual partner recommended?

(1) Metronidazole (2) Metronidazole, Treat sexual partner (3) -azoles

40

What is the pH in each of the following common vaginal infections: (1) Bacterial vaginosis (2) Trichomoniasis (3) Candida vulvovaginitis?

(1) pH > 4.5 (2) pH > 4.5 (3) pH normal (4.0-4.5)

Decks in FA - Microbiology Class (43):