Micro - Systems (Pneumonia & Meningitis) Flashcards Preview

FA - Microbiology > Micro - Systems (Pneumonia & Meningitis) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro - Systems (Pneumonia & Meningitis) Deck (27):
1

What are 2 common causes of pneumonia in neonates (<4 wk)?

(1) Group B streptococci (2) E. coli

2

What are 5 common causes of pneumonia in children (4 wk-18 yr)? Of these, which is most associated with infants-3 yr age range? Which is most associated with school-aged children?

(1) Viruses (RSV) (2) Mycoplasma (3) C. trachomatis (infants-3 yr) (4) C. pneumoniae (school-aged children) (5) S. pneumoniae; Think: "Runts May Cough Chunky Sputum"

3

What are 3 common causes of pneumonia in adults (18-40 yr)?

(1) Mycoplasma (2) C. pneumoniae (3) S. pneumoniae

4

What are 5 common causes of pneumonia in adults (40-65 yr)?

(1) S. pneumoniae (2) H. influenzae (3) Anaerobes (4) Viruses (5) Mycoplasma

5

What are 5 common causes of pneumonia in elderly?

(1) S. pneumoniae (2) Influenza virus (3) Anaerobes (4) H. influenzae (5) Gram-negative rods

6

What are 3 common causes of pneumonia in alcoholics and/or IV drug users?

(1) S. pneumoniae (2) Klebsiella (3) Staphylococcus

7

What is the most common cause of pneumonia in aspiration?

Anaerobes

8

What are 3 common causes of atypical pneumonia?

(1) Mycoplasma (2) Legionella (3) Chlamydia

9

What are 3 common causes of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients?

(1) Pseudomonas (2) S. aureus (3) S. pneumoniae

10

What are 5 common causes of pneumonia in the immunocompromised? Which of these is particularly associated with HIV?

(1) Staphylococcus (2) Enteric gram-negative rods (3) Fungi (4) Viruses (5) P. jirovecii (with HIV)

11

What are 3 common causes of nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia?

(1) Staphylococcus (2) Pseudomonas (3) other enteric gram-negative rods

12

What are 3 common causes of postviral pneumonia?

(1) Staphylococcus (2) H. influenzae (3) S. pneumoniae

13

What are 3 common causes of meningitis in newborns (0-6 mo)?

(1) Group B streptococci (2) E. coli (3) Listeria

14

What are 4 common causes of meningitis in children (6 mo - 6 yr)?

(1) S. pneumoniae (2) N. meningitidis (3) H. influenzae type B (4) Enteroviruses

15

What are 4 common causes of meningitis in people aged 6-60 years old? Of these, which is the #1 cause of meningitis in teens?

(1) S. pneumoniae (2) N. meningitidis (#1 in teens) (3) Enteroviruses (4) HSV

16

What are 3 common causes of meningitis in the elderly (60 yr+)?

(1) S. pneumoniae (2) Gram-negative rods (3) Listeria

17

For bacterial meningitis, what 2 drugs should be given empirically? What other drug may need to be added, and in what context?

Give ceftriaxone and vancomycin empirically (add ampicillin if Listeria is suspected)

18

What are 5 viral causes of meningitis?

Viral causes of meningitis - (1) Enteroviruses (esp. coxackievirus) (2) HSV-2 (HSV-1 = encephalitis) (3) HIV (4) West Nile virus (5) VZV

19

Of the enteroviruses, which is especially associated with meningitis?

Coxsackievirus

20

What is a main difference in infection due to HSV-1 versus HSV-2?

HSV-1 = encephalitis, HSV-2 = meningitis

21

In HIV patients, what are 4 common causes of meningitis?

In HIV - (1) Cryptococcus (2) CMV (3) Toxoplasmosis (brain abscess) (4) JC virus (PML)

22

Again, what are the 4 common causes of meningitis in HIV patients? Which of these causes brain abscess? Which of these is associated with PML?

In HIV - (1) Cryptococcus (2) CMV (3) Toxoplasmosis (brain abscess) (4) JC virus (PML)

23

How has the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis changed, and why? In what patient population are such cases usually seen today?

Incidence of H. influenzae meningitis has decreased greatly with introduction of the conjugate H. influenzae vaccine in last 10-15 years.; Today, cases are usually seen in unimmunized children

24

What is the CSF finding of opening pressure in each of the following kinds of meningitis: (1) Bacterial (2) Fungal/TB (3) Viral?

(1) Increased (2) Increased (3) Normal/Increased

25

What is the CSF finding of cell type in each of the following kinds of meningitis: (1) Bacterial (2) Fungal/TB (3) Viral?

(1) Increased PMNs (2) Increased lymphocytes (3) Increased lymphocytes

26

What is the CSF finding of protein in each of the following kinds of meningitis: (1) Bacterial (2) Fungal/TB (3) Viral?

(1) Increased (2) Increased (3) Normal/Increased

27

What is the CSF finding of sugar in each of the following kinds of meningitis: (1) Bacterial (2) Fungal/TB (3) Viral?

(1) Decreased (2) Decreased (3) Normal

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