Flashcards in Micro - Systems (ToRCHeS infections & Red rashes of childhood) Deck (32):
What is the defining feature of ToRCHeS infections? How are they transmitted?
Microbes that may pass from mother to fetus. Transmission is placental in most cases, or via delivery (especially HSV-2).
What are 4 nonspecific signs common to many ToRHCeS infections?
Nonspecific signs common to many ToRCHeS infections include hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and growth retardation
Which group of microbes are collectively known to pass from mother to fetus? How are they transmitted, and which is a unique consideration in that regard?
ToRCHeS infections: Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, CMV, HIV, Herpes simplex virus-2, Syphilis; Transmission is placental in most cases, or via delivery (especially HSV-2).
Besides the ToRCHeS infectious agents, what are 4 important infectious agents of relevance? With what condition is each associated (that is relevant/related to ToRCHeS distinguishing feature)?
Other important infectious agents include (1) Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci), (2) E. coli, and (3) Listeria monocytogenes - all causes of meningitis in neonates. (4) Parvovirus B19 causes hydrops fetalis.
How is Toxoplasma gondii transmitted?
Cat feces or ingestion of undercooked meat
How is Rubella transmitted?
How is CMV transmitted?
Sexual contact, organ transplants
How is HIV transmitted?
Sexual contact, needlestick
How is Herpes simplex virus-2 transmitted?
Skin or mucous membrane contact
How is Syphilis transmitted?
What are the maternal versus neonatal manifestations of Toxoplasma gondii?
MATERNAL - Usually asymptomatic; lymphadenopathy (rare); NEONATAL - Classic triad: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications
What are the maternal versus neonatal manifestations of Rubella?
MATERNAL - Rash, lymphadenopathy, arthritis; NEONATAL - Classic triad: PDA (or pulmonary artery hypoplasia), cataracts, and deafness +/- "blueberry muffin" rash
What are the maternal versus neonatal manifestations of CMV?
MATERNAL - Usually asymptomatic; mononucleosis-like illness; NEONATAL - Hearing loss, seizures, petechial rash, "blueberry muffin" rash
What are the maternal versus neonatal manifestations of HIV?
MATERNAL - Variable presentation depending on CD4+ count; NEONATAL - Recurrent infections, chronic diarrhea
What are the maternal versus neonatal manifestations of Herpes simplex virus-2?
MATERNAL - Usually asymptomatic; herpetic (vesicular) lesions; NEONATAL - Encephalitis, herpetic (vesicular) lesions
What are the maternal versus neonatal manifestations of Syphilis?
MATERNAL - Chancre (primary) and disseminated rash (secondary) are the 2 stages likely to result in fetal infection; NEONATAL - Often results in stillbirth, hydrops fetalis; if child survives, presents with facial abnormalities (notched teeth, saddle nose, short maxilla), saber shins, CN VIII deafness
If a neonate has rhagades (linear scars at angle of mouth), snuffles (nasal discharge full of infectious agent), and centrally notched, widely spaced incisors (i.e., Hutchinson teeth), what infection does he/she most likely have?
Name 7 infectious agents that cause red rashes in childhood.
(1) Coxsackievirus type A (2) HHV-6 (3) Measles virus (4) Parvovirus B19 (5) Rubella virus (6) Streptococcus pyogenes (7) VZV
What is the syndrome/disease associated with coxsackievirus type A?
What is the syndrome/disease associated with HHV-6?
What is the syndrome/disease associated with Measles virus? Give 2 names for this.
What is the syndrome/disease associated with Parvovirus B19? Give 2 names for this.
Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
What is the syndrome/disease associated with Rubella virus?
What is the syndrome/disease associated with Streptococcus pyogenes?
What is the syndrome/disease associated with VZV?
What infectious agent causes Hand-foot-mouth disease? What is the clinical presentation?
Coxsackievirus type A; Vesicular rash on palms and soles, Vesicles and ulcers in oral mucosa
What infectious agent causes Rosela? What is the clinical presentation? What patient population does it usually affect?
HHV-6; A macular rash over body appears after several days of high fever, Can present with febrile seizures, Usually affects infants
What infectious agent causes Measles (Rubeola)? What kind of pathogen is it? What is the clinical presentation?
Measles (Rubeola); A paramyxovirus; Beginning at head and moving down, Rash is preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and blue-white (Koplik) spots on buccal mucosa
What infectious agent causes Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? What is the clinical presentation?
Parvovirus B19; "Slapped cheek" rash on face (can cause hydrops fetalis in pregnant women)
What infectious agent causes Rubella? What is the clinical presentation?
Rubella virus; Rash begins at head and moves down --> fine truncal rash, Postauricular lymphadenopathy
What infectious agent causes Scarlet fever? What is the clinical presentation?
Streptococcus pyogenes; Erythematous, sandpaper-like rash with fever and sore throat