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Epidemiology

The study of the transmission, incidence, and frequency of disease.

1

Pathogenicity

The ability of a pathogen to produce disease by over coming the defenses of a host.

2

Virulence

The degree of pathogenicity

3

Parenteral route

When microbes gain access to issues through the skin and mucous membranes in bites, infections, and other wounds.

4

Toxins -

Poisonous substances produced by microganisms.

5

Toxemia

Toxins in the blood

6

The lacrimal apparatus protects....

The eyes from irritating substances and microorganisms

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Granulocytes predominate during.....

The early stages of infection.

8

Monocytes predominate during...

The time when the infection subsides.

9

What can induce fever?

Bacterial endotoxins, interleukin-1 and tnf-alpha.

10

The COMPLEMENT SYSTEM consists of...

A group of serum proteins and activate one another to destroy microorganisms.

11

Hapten

Low molecular weight substance that cannot form antibodies unless combined with a carrier molecule.

12

Lymphocytes -

Produced in red bone marrow. These mature and become B-cells.

13

Humeral immunity

Involves antibodies..it is antibody mediated immunity!

14

Agglutination

Results when an antibody combines with epitopes on two different cells.

15

What shape is an antibody molecule?

Y shaped. The variable region binds the antigens and the constant region forms the base that distinguishes different classes of antibodies.

16

Antibodies consist of four....

Poly peptide chains - 2 light chains and two dark chains.

17

IgG

Most abundant in serum. Provides naturally acquired passive immunity - neutralizes bacterial toxins, involved in complement fixation and phagocytosis.

18

IgM

Involved in agglutination and complement fixation.

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IgA

Protects mucosal surfaces from invasion by pathogens.

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IgD

Bind mast cells and basophils involved in allergic reactions.

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IgE

On B cells - deletes B cells producing antibodies against self.

22

An antigen antibody complex forms when an antibody binds to it's specific epitopes on an antigen.

Optimization

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Enhances phagocytosis of the antigen.

Th 1 cells

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Th 1 cells activate cells involved in ...

cellular immunity.

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Th 2 cells are associated with...

allergic reactions and parasitic infections.

26

Th17 cells..

active innate immunity and responses to extracellular bacteria.

27

T regulatory cells (treg) suppress..

..T cells against self.

28

Cytotoxic T cells....

Lyse or induce apoptosis in the target cells.

29

Antigen presenting cells -

Include B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages.