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Flashcards in Microbial Diseases Deck (67):
1

Tuberculosis:
is caused by what microbe?
Transmitted from?
Treatment?
Vaccine?

-mycobacterium tuberculosis
-human to human
-Prolonged treatment with
multiple antibiotics
-BCG vaccine

2

Pneumonia:
is caused by what microbe?
symptoms?
Diagnosis?
Treatment?
Prevention?

-streptococcus pneumoniae
-Infected alveoli of lung fill with
fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake
-Optochin‐inhibition test or bile
solubility test; serological typing of bacteria
-Penicillin, fluoroquinolones
-Pneumococcal vaccine

3

Haemophilus influenzae Pneumonia
is caused by?
predisposing factors?
diagnosis?
treatment?

-Haemophilus microbe
-Alcoholism, poor
nutrition, cancer, or diabetes
-Isolation; special media for nutritional
requirements
-Cephalosporins

4

What is lymphangitis?

Inflamed lymph vessels accompanying
septicemia and septic shock

5

What's gram negative sepsis called? Gram positive?

endotoxin shock, Nosocomial infections:

6

Endotoxin shock:
can cause ___ and ____ to decrease
-antibiotics?
-treatments?

-Endotoxins cause blood pressure to decrease
-Antibiotics can worsen condition by killing
bacteria
-Possible treatment, Human activated protein C, an anticoagulant

7

4 microbes that cause Nosocomial infections:

-Staphylococcus aureus
- Streptococcus pyogenes
- Group B streptococcus, S. agalactiae
- Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis

8

What are the three types of Endocarditis?

Subacute bacterial endocarditis, Acute bacterial endocarditis, and Pericarditis

9

Subacute bacterial endocarditis is caused by what microbe?

Alpha‐hemolytic streptococci from mouth

10

Acute bacterial endocarditis is caused by what microbe?

Staphylococcus aureus from mouth

11

Pericarditis is caused by what microbe?

Streptococci, Inflammation of heart sac

12

Anthrax:
is caused by what microbe?
found in?
cattle are ______
treatment?

-Bacillus anthracis
-Found in soil
- Cattle routinely vaccinated
- Treated with ciprofloxacin or doxycycline

13

What are the three types of anthrax?
treatment?

cutaneous anthrax, Gastrointestinal anthrax (50% mortality), Inhalational (pulmonary) anthrax (100% mortality)
-antibiotics*

14

What are 3 vector borne bacterial diseases?

plague, Lyme's disease, and typhus

15

Lyme disease:
caused by what microbe?
vector?
symptoms?
reservoir?

Borrelia burgdorferi
-ticks
-bull's eye rash, irregular heartbeat, arthritis, encephalitis
-deer

16

Typhus:
caused by?
where does the microbe infect?
treatment?

-Rickettsia
-Obligate intracellular parasites
- In endothelial cells of the vascular system
-antibiotics / doxycycline & tetracycline

17

What are the two types of typhus?

Epidemic typhus and Endemic murine typhus

18

Epiemic typhus:
microbe?
reservoir?
vector?
treatment?

-Rickettsia prowazekii
-rodents
-Pediculus humanus corporis
 Transmitted when louse feces are rubbed into
bite wound
-tetracycline & chloramphenicol

19

Endemic murine typhus:
microbe?
reservoir?
treatment?

-Rickettsia typhi
-Xenopsylla cheopis
-tetracycline & chloramphenicol

20

What are the 4 major microbes of malaria?
treatment?

-Plasmodium vivax
 P. ovale
 P. malariae
 P. falciparum
-Artemisinin: artesunate and artemether

21

What are the 3 common microbes that cause bacterial meningitis?

-Haemophilus influenzae
-Neisseria meningitidis
-Streptococcus pneumoniae

22

What are the 4 types of meningitis?

bacterial, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae

23

Haemophilus influenzae
occurs mostly in ________, prevented by ________________

children, prevented by Hib vaccine

24

Neisseria meningitis is aka __________, caused by ________ microbe, preventative?

Meningococcal meningitis
- Caused by N. meningitidis
-vaccine recommended for college students

25

Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis is aka _____________________, caused by ___________________

pneumococcal meningitis, S. pneumoniae (common in children, vaccine available)

26

Tetanus:
caused by?
occurs in ________
what does it do?
prevention?
treatment?

-Clostridium tetani
-deep wounds
-Prevention by vaccination with tetanus toxoid
(DTP) and booster (dT)
-Tetanospasmin released from dead cells blocks
relaxation pathway in muscles
-Treatment with tetanus immune globulin

27

Botulism:
caused by?
what does it do?
prevention?

-Clostridium botulinum
-Botulinal toxin blocks release of neurotransmitter, causing flaccid paralysis
-Proper canning, nitrites prevent endospore germination in
sausages

28

Polio:
transmitted?
symptoms?
-prevention

-ingestion
-Sore throat and nausea, if persistant, virus can enter the CNS
-vaccination

29

Rabies virus multiplies in ______ and then ______ cells causing ___________

skeletal muscles and brain cells, encephalitis

30

Initial symptoms of rabies include:
prevention?

muscle spasms of the mouth and pharynx and hydrophobia
pre-exposure injection (HDCV) and post vaccine (vaccine plus immune globin)

31

Arboviral Encephalitis is a _______________ borne virus, controlled by ___________

Arthropod‐borne viruses, mosquito control

32

Common treatment for diseases of the lower digestive system is ____________

Oral rehydration therapy

33

Symptoms of Gastroenteritis

Diarrhea, dysentery

34

Staphylococcal Food Poisoning:
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-Staphylococcus aureus
-Nausea, vomiting, and
diarrhea
-rehydration therapy

35

Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-Shigella spp.
-Tissue damage and
dysentery
-Quinolones (broad‐spectrum
antibiotics)

36

Salmonellosis:
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-Salmonella enterica
-Nausea and diarrhea
-Oral rehydration

37

Typhoid Fever:
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-S. typhi
-high fever, significant mortality
-Quinolones; cephalosporins

38

Chloera:
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

Vibrio cholerae
-Diarrhea with large water loss
-Rehydration; doxycycline

39

Noncholera vibrios
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus
-Cholera-like diarrhea, but generally milder and Rapidly spreading tissue destruction
-re hydration and antibiotics

40

Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis: aka _______________
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

traveler's diarrhea
- E. coli
-watery diarrhea
-Oral rehydration

41

Campylobacter Gastroenteritis:
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-Campylobacter jejuni
-Fever, abdominal
pain, diarrhea
-treatment not online, check in notes

42

Helicobacter Peptic Ulcer Disease: aka ______________
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

stomach cancer
-Helicobacter pylori
-Peptic ulcers
-Antimicrobial drugs

43

Gonorrhea
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-Neisseria gonorrhoeae
-Men: Painful urination and discharge of pus
Women: Few symptoms but possible
complications, such as PID
-If left untreated, may result in
Endocarditis, Meningitis, Arthritis, Ophthalmia neonatorum (blindness)
-Fluoroquinolones

44

Genital Herpes:
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-herpes simplex virus 2
-Painful vesicles on genitals
-suppressed by Acyclovir

45

Genital Warts:
caused by?
symptoms?
treatment?

-Human papillomaviruses
-Warts in genital area
-Podofilox; imiquimod

46

What are 5 Staphylococcal Skin Infections?

folliculitis, sty, furuncle, carbuncle, impetigo

47

Folliculitis:

Infections of the hair follicles

48

Sty:

Folliculitis of an eyelash

49

Furuncle:

Abscess; pus surrounded by inflamed
tissue

50

Carbuncle:

Inflammation of tissue under the skin

51

Impetigo:

crusting sores, spread by
autoinoculation

52

What are the 4 different poxviruses viruses?

smallpox (variola), monkey pox, chicken pox, shingles

53

Staphylococcus ________ is antibiotic resistant

aureus

54

What are the common treatments for bacterial diseases? viral?

bacteria: give them fluids or antibiotics
virus: you give antivirals, or commone flu is rest and fluids

55

Which types of hepatitis cause liver cancer?

Hep B, C, and D

56

Which types of hepatitis are transmitted by fecal-oral?

Hep A and E

57

Which types of hepatitis are transmitted by parenteral?

Hep B, C, and D

58

Which type of hepatitis is an STI?

Hep B

59

There are healthy carriers of ________, and there is a vaccination

meningitis
(Pneumococcal and Neisseria meningitis

60

Tetanus is an infectious disease, but not contagious from person to person, only from _____________

direct contact with spore

61

How is smallpox transmitted?

respiratory transmission

62

Chicken pox is caused by ________ and transmitted by ______ and _______

human herpes virus 3, transmitted by the respiratory route and contact

63

Measles is transmitted by ____ and it is recognized by its ______

respiratory route, Macular rash

64

How do you treat conjunctivitis?

antibiotics

65

What are the three causes of conjunctivitis?

Chlamydia trachomatis
Neisseria gonorrhoea
Haemophilus influenzae

66

Whooping Cough aka ____________
caused by?
what happens?
what is produced?
prevention?

-Pertussis
-cytotoxin in trachea damages cilia in throat
-produces pertussis toxin
-prevented by a vaccine

67

What are the three stages of Whooping Cough?

stage 1:catarrhal stage (like common cold)
stage 2: Paroxysmal stage (violent coughing sieges)
stage 3: convalescence stage (recovery)