microbial genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in microbial genetics Deck (10):
1

transforming bacteria

transforming dna

avirulent dna turned to virulent dna by purifying/isolating dna from virulent dna and introducing it to avirulent bacteria

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2

Nucleotide

nucleotide= building block of DNA

nitrogenous base + five carbon sugar + three phosphate groups

 

can be deoxy or just normal

3

nitorgenous bases

nitrogenous bases

  • purine- 2 rings
    • adenine
    • guanine
  • pyrimidine- 1 ring (6 molecules)
    • cytosine
    • thymine
    • uracil

** base + sugar = nucleoside

The nitrogenous bases form the bonds that connect the two strands. sugar and phosphate is the backbone

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4

terminology for genetic material

base=

base + sugar=

base + sugar + phosphate=

You read dna sequence from 5' to 3' end.  remember the two strands run opposite eachother. 

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5

Central dogma of genetic information

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6

dna replication

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7

DNA vs. RNA

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8

Compare transcription and translation in bacteria vs animals

Animals

  • much longer process (right diagram)

Bacteria

  • degredation occurs rapidly (left diagram)

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9

Mutations

4 types

Mutations

=change in the sequence of DNA

  • spontaneus or induced
  • silent mutation= no effect
  • missense mutation= change in protein function
  • nonsense mutations= chanfes coding codon to a termination codon
  • frameshift mutations= insertion or deletion other than multiple of 3.  messes up everything down stream

10

genetic transfer (4)

genetic transfer- in bacteria

  • transformation: new genetic markers by incorperation of added DNA
  • conjunction: "mating" between two bacteria involving transfer of genetic material
  • transduction: transfer of bacterial gene by phage
  • transposition: movement of a transposon to a new site in the genome