Microbiology 3.2 Flashcards Preview

NMSK-B III > Microbiology 3.2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology 3.2 Deck (49):
1

What are arboviruses?

arthropod-borne virus

2

What are robovirus?

rodent-borne virus

3

What is the reservoir and vector of Lyme disease?

vector: tick

reservoir: mouse

4

What is the reservoir and vector of West Nile virus?

vector: mosquitoes

reservoir: birds

5

What is the reservoir and vector of Dengue virus?

vector: mosquitoes

reservoir: human

6

What is the extrinsic incubation period?

amount of time for the virus to incubate the mosquito vector after it was infected by the diseased human

7

What is the intrinsic incubation period?

amount of time for the virus to incubate in a human after it was infected by the diseased mosquito

8

What are environmental changes which affect arboviruses?

climate changes

9

What are the disease manifestations of West Nile Virus?

encephalitis
aspetic meningitis

10

What are the disease manifestations of Eastern equine encephalitis virus?

encephalitis
aspetic meningitis

11

What are the disease manifestations of Western equine encephalitis virus?

encephalitis
aspetic meningitis

12

What are the disease manifestations of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus?

encephalitis
aspetic meningitis

13

What are the disease manifestations of California encephalitis virus?

encephalitis
aseptic meningitis

14

What are the disease manifestations of Chikungunya Virus?

rash
arthritis

15

What are the disease manifestations of Dengue virus?

hemorrhagic fever

16

What are the disease manifestations of Yellow Fever?

liver damage
liver failure

17

What is the pathogenesis of arboviruses?

transmitted from mosquito bite and travels through body through blood supply and goes all throughout body

18

How are arboviral infections diagnosed?

-viral isolation from blood if early in infection
-RT-PCR/PCR
later after infection:
-serology using "paired sera" [not helpful in clinic, but helpful in epidemiology]

19

What is the treatment of abroviral infections?

supportive treatment

20

What are preventative measures for arboviral infections?

-avoid contact with insect vectors (insect repellent, long sleeves)
-elimination of vectors and breeding sites
-vaccinations

21

What is the family and genus of West Nile Virus and Dengue virus?

Flaviviridae Flavivirus

22

What are the Flaviviridae characteristics?

-enveloped
-small
-ss + sense RNA
-replicate in cytoplasm

23

What is Flavivirus replication?

-translated into polyprotein
-cleaved into individual mature proteins
-buds into intracellular vesicles
-lytic response in vertebrae hosts and persistent infection in invertebrate hosts

24

What is the most important arbovirus in North America?

West Nile virus

25

What is the species of mosquitoes which serve as the vector for West Nile virus?

Culex

26

How does West Nile virus present in a patient?

-most asymptomatic
-febrile illness in 20%
-*less than 1% develop encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis

27

Which diseases increase the risk of serious illness from West Nile virus?

-cancer
-diabetes
-HTN
-kidney disease

28

What is the species of mosquitoes which serve as the vector for Dengue virus?

Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus

29

How do patients present with a Dengue viral infection?

-mild fever
-severe headache
-pain behind eyes, muscles, joints
-rash
**4 serotypes**

30

What is DHF/DSS?

Dengue hermorrhagic fever/Dengue shock syndrome
-potentially lethal
-affects children mostly
-fever
-abdominal pain
-vomiting
-bleeding

31

What type of treatment is critical to treat severe Dengue illness?

maintenance of patient's body fluid

32

What is the proposed mechanism of infection of Dengue virus?

antibody-dependent enhancement where antibodies (from initial Dengue infeciton) facilitates virus entering and infecting cell
*initial and second infections are different serotypes (4 total)*

33

What are the transmission cycles of Yellow fever virus?

-jungle
-intermediate
-urban

34

Where is Saint Louis encephalitis virus found?

Eastern and Central US
"urban"

35

What is the vector, reservoir, and dead-end for Saint Louis encephalitis virus?

vector: Culex mosquitoes

reservoir: wild birds

dead-ends: humans

36

What are Togaviridae characteristics?

-enveloped
-medium size
-ss + sense RNA
-replicate in cytoplasm

37

What is togaviridae replication?

endocytosis
polyprotein
small proteins
makes capsid proteins too

38

Where is eastern equine encephalitis virus?

atlantic and gulf coast

39

Where is western equine encephalitis?

west of mississippi
"rural"
young infants at higher risk

40

What is the vector, reservoir, and dead-end for Western equine encephalitis virus?

vector: Culex tarsalis mosquitoes

reservoir: wild birds

dead-ends: humans

41

What is the vector and reservoir of chikungunya virus?

vector: Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus

reservoir: humans

42

How do the clinical presentations of Chikungunya and Dengue viral infections compare?

chikungunya:
-more joint pain
-not lethal

43

Why was West Nile virus able to get established in the US but not dengue or chikungunya?

West Nile virus hit the US and once it got into birds, the disease spread. They tried to spray for killing the mosquitoes but could not kill them all

44

What are the Bunyaviridae characteristics?

-enveloped
-medium sized
-segmented ss - sense linear RNA
-replicate in cytoplasm

45

Where is California encephalitis virus complex?

upper Midwestern
mid-Atlantic and SE states
children 5-18 yo

46

What is the vector and reservoir of California encephalitis (La Crosse) virus?

vector: Aedes triseriatus

reservoir: chipmunks, squirrels, rabbits

47

What are the Reoviridae characteristics?

-double capsid structure
-naked
-medium sized
-segmented ds linear RNA
-replicates in cytoplasm

48

What is reoviridae replication?

-all enzymes for transcribing, capping, extruding mRNAs from core are in the core

-leaves dsRNA genome segments in core to prevenet activation or antiviral response to dsRNA

49

What is the vector and reservoir of Colorado tick fever virus?

vector: wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni)

reservoir: squirrels, chipmunks, rabbits, deer