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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (48):
1

What shape are cocci organisms?

Round

2

What shape are bacillus organisms?

Long and thin

3

What colour are gram positive organisms when stained?

Purple

4

What colour are gram negative organisms when stained

Pink

5

Which group produces exotoxins?

Gram positive

6

Which group produces endotoxins?

Gram negative

7

Describe a gram positive cell wall

Small phospholipid layer and large peptidoglycan layer

8

Describe a gram negative cell wall

Peptidoglycan layer between two phospholipid layers

9

How long does microscopy take?

Same day

10

How long does PCR take?

Same day

11

How long does culture on agar take?

48 hrs

12

How long does serology take?

Same day

13

How long does TB culture take?

4-12 weeks

14

Which organisms are gram positive cocci?

Streptococcus
Enterococcus
Staphlococcus

15

Which organisms are Gram positive bacilli?

Clostridium spp.

16

Which organisms are gram negative cocci?

Diplococci
Neiserria
Gonorrhoea

17

which organisms are gram negative bacilli?

Coliforms
Strict aerobes
Curved bacilli
Haemophilus influenza

18

Give examples of gram negative anaerobic bacilli

Bacteriodes spp.

19

Give examples of coliforms

Gut commensals - E.coli, Klebsiella, Proteous
Gut pathogens - salmonella, shigella, E. coli 0157

20

Give examples of strict aerobes

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Legionella pneumonia

21

Give examples of curved gram negative bacilli

Campylobacter
H. Pylori

22

Which organism is differentiated by type using haemolysis?

Streptococci
Partial = alpha
Complete = beta
Non-haemolytic = gamma

23

Describe staphlococci

gram positive aerobic clustered cocci, use coagulase test to distinguish
Positive = golden

24

What is MSSA sensitive to?

Flucloxacillin

25

What is the first line antibiotic for coliform infections?

Gentamicin

26

What is transformation?

When DNA from dead bacteria can be taken up by living bacteria and be incorporated

27

What is conjugation?

bacterial sex where plasmid DNA can be transfered

28

What is transduction?

Viruses that infect bacteria and can transfer DNA from one to another

29

Which antibiotics act on the bacterial cell wall?

Penicillins
Cephlasporins
Glycopeptides

30

Which antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?

Macrolides
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
Clindamycin and chloramphenicol

31

Which antibiotics act on bacterial DNA?

Metronidazole
Trimethoprim
Fluoroquinolones

32

How do certain antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?

attaching to bacterial ribosomes which are different to mamallian ribosomes

33

How do certain antibiotics act on the cell wall?

Inhibit cell wall synthesis by preventing cross linkage of peptidoglycan

34

Why is amoxicillin often less effective?

Many organisms produce beta-lactamaze which is an enzyme that destroys amoxicillin

35

Which antibiotics are used for coliforms?

Gentamicin

36

Which antibiotics are used for anaerobes?

Metronidazole

37

Which antibiotics are used for Enterococcus?

Amoxicillin

38

Prophylaxis treatment

Gentamicin and metronidazole

39

Where are exotoxins produced?

Produced inside the cell

40

Where are endotoxins produced?

Part of the bacterial cell wall

41

Name the 4 C's

Ciprofloxacin
Cephalosporins
Co-amoxiclav
Clindamycin

42

How is streptococcus identified?

Haemolysis

43

Alpha haemolysis

Strep. Pneumoniae and viridian's

44

Beta haemolysis

Group A and B

45

Gamma haemolysis/no haemolysis

Enterococcus

46

If staphylococcus is coagulase positive what bacteria is present?

Staph. Aureus

47

If staphylococcus is coagulase negative what bacteria is likely to be present?

Staph. Epidermis

48

Sate the 5 ways infection can spread

Inoculation
Ingestion
Inhalation
Intercourse
Mother to Infant