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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (29):
1

Meningitis Symptoms

stiff neck
photo phobia
fever

2

Meningitis Signs

Kernig's - cant straighten leg
Brudzinski's - neck up, knees up

3

Meningitis Ix

Bloods - Raised ESR and CRP
Blood culture
Lumpar Culture
CT Head

4

Meningitis Treatment

Ceftriaxone - a Cephalosporin
Add Amoxicillin:
Age>55, Immunocompromised

Add Steroids ( DEXAMETHASONE)
Pneumococcal Meningitis

5

Encephalitis

Acute inflammation of the brain parenchyma

6

Encephalitis Causes

Viral
- Herpes Simplex
- Enterovirus

7

Encephalitis Symptoms

Confusion
Reduced consciousness
Fever
Headache
Seizures

8

Encephalitis Ix

EEG - electroencephalogram
- parodic shape
- slow wave complexes

9

Encephalitis Treatment

Acyclovir

10

Urinary Tract Infections

Growth of over 10^5 organisms per ml on fresh MSU

11

UTI Causes

E.COLI = MAIN CAUSE
Klebsiella
Enterococci

12

UTI symptoms ( upper and lower)

Suprapub pain
Dysuria
Increased frequency

13

Ix and Rx of Upper UTI

MCS of MSU
Trimethoprim

14

Ix and Rx of Lower UTI

USS Kidney Ureter and Bladder
GENTAMYCIN + CEFTRIAXIME
Co-amoxiclav

15

Gram positive bacteria pathway

catalase + Staph > Coagulase test > positive STAPH AUREUS

Catalase - Strep > Haemolysis
Alpha > Optochin > Resistant VIRIDANS . Sensitive PNEUMONIAE
Beta > Lancefield typing > A- pyogenes

16

Gram staining colours

Gram negative - piNk
Gram positive - PurPle

17

Why does Gram positive stain Purple

It has a thick peptidoglycan wall

18

Gram negative bacilli/rods

E Coli
Klebsiella
Shigella
Helicobacter
Campylobacter

19

How to distinguish between gram negative bacilli

Use MacConkey agar to check if lactose fermenter or not
POSITIVE Klebsiella E Coli
NEGATIVE Shigella, Salmonella, Psuuedomonas

and oxidase test to distinguish

20

IE cause

MAIN - Strep Viridans

21

IE Signs

New murmur
Fever
Janeway lesions, Oslers, ROthspots

22

IE Ix

Bloods: Raised ESR and CRP
cultures
CXR
ECHO

23

Duke's criteria

Blood culture
Endocardial involvement

MINOR
Fever
Echo
Evidence on microbiology
Evidence on immunology
Risk group

24

IE Rx

IV Benzylpenicillin
GENTAMYCIN

IV Flucoxacillin
GENTAMYCIN

25

Osteomyelitis

Inflammatory reaction of bone to infective organism

26

Osteomyelitis RF

HAEMATOGENOUS SPREAD - children
TRAUMA - Adults
DM PVD - Elderly

27

Osteomyelitis cause

HAEMATOGENOUS SPREAD - Staph Aureus
Exogenous - Staph Epidermids

28

Osteomyelitis Ix

Bloods - inflammatory markers
culture

29

Osteomyelitis Rx

Surgical
Abx - broad spec abx - CEPHALOSPORINS
CEFTRIAXONE
and then tailor to sensitivity of cause