Flashcards in Microbiology Chapter 14 Deck (24):
A category of immune response and first line of defense
A defense a person is born with. It is nonspecific (protects against many different infections) and act immediately
Examples of Non-specific Immunity
Are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity
White Blood Cells (WBCs)
Horse shoe or polymorphic nuclei.
It is present in high numbers in blood and tissue. It Phagocytizes (ingests) bacteria - granules are digestive enzymes. IT IS FIRST TO ARRIVE DURING AN IMMUNE RESPONSE (inflammation)
Bilobed nuclei. Present in the bone marrow and spleen. Attach and destroy ekaryotic pathogens. Associated with inflammation and allergies.
Constricted nuclei. Present in low in number in the body. Function is similar to eosinophils. Has Mast Cells which are tissue cells with similar function to basophils.
2 types of Agranulocytes/Mononuclear cells
Lymphocytes & Monocytes
Part of the Innate Immunity. Have Natural Killer cells which attack virus infected cells and cancer cells. (T-cells and B-cells)
Agranulocyte which differentiates into macrophages and dendritic cells in the tissues.
Ingest and digest large particles (bacteria), process foreign molecules and present them to lymphocytes, and secrete compounds that regulate immunity.
Where are white cells formed and respond to foreign molecules
Thymus and Spleen
Located in the upper left portion of the abdominal cavity. Filter for blood (traps pathogens and destroys pathogens through phagocytosis by macrophages). Adults can survive without spleen. Asplenic children are severely immunocompromised.
Site for T-cells maturation. Embryo has two lobes in the pharyngeal region and has high activity (releases mature T cells) until puberty. In the adult, it gradually shrinks. It increases in size and effectiveness until puberty, then atrophies. Important for the formation of mature T-cells.
Traps incoming microbes from food. Supply lymphocytes for antibody response. (EX// Appendix, Tonsils, Payer's Patches)
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT - also called GALT, gut associated lymphoid tissue.
Has five major symptoms:
5. Loss of Function
Caused by cytokines
Proteins secreted by cells that activate other cells
Caused by Pyrogens
Consists of 26 blood proteins. Produced by liver hepatocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes. It pathways, stages, and cascade reacts.
Activated by the presence of antibody bound to microbes
Activated when a host serum protein binds a sugar (mannan) in the wall of fungi and other microbes.