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Flashcards in Microbiology Chapter 4 Deck (67):
1

RM


Mycobacterium is included in which type of bacteria?

A. Gram positive

B. Gram negative

C. Acid-Fast

 A. Gram positive

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2

RM

Mycoplasm is which type of bacteria?

A. Gram positive

B. Gram negative

C. Acid fast

B. Gram negative

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Archaea

A division of prokaryotic organisms similar to bacteria that lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls and are usually found growing in extreme conditions.

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Bacillus (bacilli)

One of the three basic bacteria shapes.  This term describes a rod shaped or elongated bacterium.

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Cell Wall

A protective structure that surrounds most bacteria.  The cell wall is responsible for the shape of a bacterium.

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Centrioles

A structure consisting of nine microtubule triplets, found in eukaryotic cells.

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Chemotaxis

*

The movement resulting from a chemical stimulus.

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Chloroplast

The membrane bound organelles found in plant cells that perform the chemical reactions of photosynthesis.  Photosynthetic bacteria do not contain chloroplasts.

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Cilia

Hair-like projections found on some eukaryotic cells involved in movement of the cell or its environment.  Cilia are similar to flagella in structure, but are shorter and more numerous.  Prokaryotic cells do not have cilia.

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Clostridium

A genus of bacterium characterized by endospore production, being obligate ananerobes, and most produce potent exotoxins.

Examples:

Clostridium tetani - tetanus

Clostridium botulinum - botulism

Clostridium perfringens - gas gangrene

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Cytoskeleton

A network of protein filaments found in eukaryotic cells that hold organelles in place and porvide internal support.  Prokayotic cells do not have a cytoskeleton.

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Diplo-

The prefix for pairs of microbes.  Pairs of cocci are diplococci and pairs of bacilli are diplobacilli.

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Endoflagella (axial filaments)

An internal flagella found only in helical shaped bacteria. 

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Endoplasmic reticulum

A membrane bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells involved in producing organic molecules. 

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes and produces proteins.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not contain ribosomes and produces lipids.

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Endospore

A protective structure found inside some bacteria that allow the bacteria to survive after the vegetative cell has died.

It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

Generally produced as environmenal conditions deteriorate.

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Endotoxin

The lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide found in the cell wall of gram negative bacteria.  It is released as the bacteria dies and stimulates fever and shock in the host.

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Eukaryotic

Cells that contain a membrane bound nucleus.  This includes the animals, plants, protozoa, and fungi.

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Facilitated Diffusion

The passive movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration that requires a carrier or channel protein.

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Flagella

Cellular appendages involve in movement.

Bacteria flagella are simply long strands of protein.

Eukaryotic flagella consist of 9 pairs of microtubules around a central pair.

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Fusiform bacteria

Baciilus shaped bacteria that are are tapered at the ends.

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Glycocalyx

A polysaccharide coating secreted by some bacteria.  Also know as a capsule, the structrure contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans.

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Golgi Complex

A membrane bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that receives products from other organelles, packages them, and ships them to other parts of the cell or the environment.

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Gram negative

A classification of bacteria cell wall that posesses an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide.  All gram negative bacteria release endotoxin which is part of the lipopolysaccharide.

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PILI


 

Bacterial conjugation found on gram negative bacteria.

( transfer of DNA)

 

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PLASMID

molecule that is separate from, and can replicate independently of, the chromosomal DNA. They are double-stranded and, in many cases, circular. Plasmids usually occur naturally in bacteria, but are sometimes found in eukaryotic organisms

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PLEOMORPHIC

Variable shapes

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PROKARYOTIC

A group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus.Peptidoglycan Unique and contain 70 ribosomes.

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PSEUDOPODIA

False feet.

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RIBOSOMES

Involved in protein synthesis. The number depends on the amount of protein synthesis.

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Selectively Permeable

Allows certain ions and molecules to pass while others are restricted.

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Lysosomes

An organelle that contains digestive enzymes, found ONLY in eukaryotic cells.

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Simple Diffusion

Small molecules, oxygen,carbon dioxide (Passive).

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Spirilla

Vibrios,Spirilla,Spriochete

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Gram (+)

Bacteria that contain a thick layer of peptidoglycan, causing calls to retain the initial purple stain(in Gram stain) after decolorization.

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Group Transport

When a substance is chemically altered during transport across the plasma membrane during active transport.

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Lipopolysaccharide

A molecule consisting of a lipid and polysaccharide- forms the outer layer of gram(-) cell walls

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Membrane Bound Organelles

Organelles found only in Eukaryotic cells- NUcleus, Mitochondria, Lysosomes, Golgi, and Endo Reticulum

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Mitochondria

Membrane bound organelle that is used in the production of ATP.

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Monotrichous

A cell that has a single flagella.

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Mycobacterium

A genus of bacteria that contains high concentrations of mycolic acid in the cell wall.

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Mycolic Acid

A hydrophobic waxy layer on a cell bound to a thin layer of peptidoglycan by a polysaccharide- causes cultures of mycobacterium to clump and stick to the walls of a flask.

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Lophotrichous

A cell having two or more flagella at one or both ends.

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Vibrio

Curved Spirilla (shaped like a "comma")(  , )

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Strepto-

Chains of cells- bacillus and coccus

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Staphylo-

Clusters of cells - Coccus only!!

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Sporogenesis

Production or formation of spores

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Spirochete

Helical shaped cells with an endoflagella inside it to enable it to swim.

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Cocci

(coccus)

A spherical or ovoid bacterium.

o o o

 o  o

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Coccobacilli

(coccobacillus)

A bacterium that has an oval rod shape

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Conjugation

The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another -involving cell to cell contact.

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Cytoplasmic Inclusions

Reserve deposits within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.

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Cytoplasm

In a prokaryotic cell, everything inside the plasma membrane; in a Eukaryotic cell, everything inside the plasma membrane and external to the nucleus.

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Phototaxis

When an organism is attracted to a light source.

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Phagocytosis

Form of endocytosis.  The cell sends out pseudpodia to engulf another bacteria and then become a intracellular vesicle which is then eaten up by lysosomes, the left over material is then excreted from the cell through exocytosis.

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Peroxisomes

Within a vacuole (membrane bound organelle).

-digests toxins that the cell produces

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Peritrichous

Term used when flagella on a cell are projected in all directions

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Peptidoglycan

A common component found in the cell wall of all bacteria.

Think of brick wall!

Glycan- Bricks (NAM & NAG)

Peptido- Mortar - amino acid chains

      -peptide bridges

      -tetrapeptide side chains

 

 

 

 

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Outer Membrane

In Gram Negative cells.

Lipopolysaccharide

             - lipid A endotoxin

Phospholipid

Lipoproteins

             outer membrane

             cell wall

             cell membrane 

              *single to a few layers of peptidoglycan*

 

 

 

 

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Osmotic Pressure

Pressure applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

 

 

 

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Osmosis

Movement of (water) molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from higher concentration to a lower concentration.

 

 

 

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Ocular Micrometer

Glass disk that fits in the eyepiece of a microscope that has a ruled scale for measurement of specimens.

 

 

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NAM & NAG

2 sugars that are in Peptidoglycan

                   (in cell wall)

*backbone of peptidoglycan*

 

 

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Mycoplasma

Bacteria that lack a cell wall and are unaffected by many antibiotics.

Smallest known cell - 0.1

Any filter larger than 0.1- the mycoplasma will pass threw

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What is a  

It is a ...

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AM: Which of the following have a cell wall? 

A)  Protoplasts 
B) Fungi 
C) L forms 
D) Mycoplasmas 
E) Animal cells 

 

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